Normally, urine is some shade of yellow with acid urine usually a darker colour than alkaline urine. Pathologically, it may be any colour.
References and Links Unusual urine – Clinical Cases Urine Color Urine Transparency (turbidity) Dipstick urinalysis CCC – Urinalysis CCC – Urine electrolytes – Urinary anion gap Urinalysis Overview Table Laboratory Urinalysis
Consumption of certain foods and medications may be causes for changes in the odour of urine as well as pathological conditions
Urinalysis (UA) is used as a screening and/or diagnostic tool to detect substances or cellular material in the urine associated with metabolic disorders, renal dysfunction or urinary tract infections (UTI)
CCC overview of urinalysis
Urinary anion gap (UAG): Differentiate renal or GIT cause of HYPERchloraemic metabolic disorders; or Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis (NAGMA)
Freshly voided urine is clear and transparent. Cloudy urine may be caused by crystals, deposits, white cells, red cells, epithelial cells or fat globules. Further evaluation with centrifugation, microscopic examination, heating or with ether generally determines the cause of the turbidity.
Laboratory urine analysis