The Galeazzi test, sometimes called Allis sign or Skyline test, is used to assess for hip dislocation, specifically testing for developmental dysplasia of the hip.

The test is performed with infant supine, hips flexed to 45 and knees flexed to 90 with feet flat on examining surface. Examiner looks for symmetry in the level of the knees. An inequality in the height of the knees is a positive Galeazzi sign and usually is caused by hip dislocation or congenital femoral shortening.

Clinical Notes
  • Bilateral dislocation may not present with a positive Galeazzi sign.
  • The Galeazzi test has been extended to assess adults with suspected leg length discrepancy; in the same position if the knee diminishes with either femoral or tibial length reduction. The knee shifts cephalad when the femoral length is reduced, and caudally when the tibial length is reduced

History of Il segno di Galeazzi

1935Riccardo Galeazzi was director of the orthopaedic clinic at the University of Milan for thirty five years. He was known for his work on congenital hip dislocation, scoliosis, skeletal tuberculosis, achondroplasia, osteitis fibrosa cystica and juvenile osteochondritis. Following review of >12,000 congenital hip dislocations, he developed the Galeazzi Test to improve early detection.

Associated Persons

Alternative names
  • Allis sign
  • Skyline test


Historical articles

Review articles



the names behind the name

Physician in training. German translator and lover of medical history.

BA MA (Oxon) MBChB (Edin) FACEM FFSEM. Emergency physician, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital.  Passion for rugby; medical history; medical education; and asynchronous learning #FOAMed evangelist. Co-founder and CTO of Life in the Fast lane | Eponyms | Books | Twitter |

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