The Galeazzi test, sometimes called Allis sign or Skyline test, is used to assess for hip dislocation, specifically testing for developmental dysplasia of the hip.
The test is performed with infant supine, hips flexed to 45 and knees flexed to 90 with feet flat on examining surface. Examiner looks for symmetry in the level of the knees. An inequality in the height of the knees is a positive Galeazzi sign and usually is caused by hip dislocation or congenital femoral shortening.
- Bilateral dislocation may not present with a positive Galeazzi sign.
- The Galeazzi test has been extended to assess adults with suspected leg length discrepancy; in the same position if the knee diminishes with either femoral or tibial length reduction. The knee shifts cephalad when the femoral length is reduced, and caudally when the tibial length is reduced
History of Il segno di Galeazzi
1935 – Riccardo Galeazzi was director of the orthopaedic clinic at the University of Milan for thirty five years. He was known for his work on congenital hip dislocation, scoliosis, skeletal tuberculosis, achondroplasia, osteitis fibrosa cystica and juvenile osteochondritis. Following review of >12,000 congenital hip dislocations, he developed the Galeazzi Test to improve early detection.
- Riccardo Galeazzi (1866 – 1952)
- Allis sign
- Skyline test
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- Scaglietti O. Riccardo Galeazzi, 1866-1952. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (British). 1953;35-B:679-680
- Barlow TG. Early diagnosis and treatment of congenital dislocation of the hip. Proc R Soc Med. 1963;56:804–6
- Ortolani M. Congenital hip dysplasia in the light of early and very early diagnosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1976 Sep;(119):6-10
- Klisic PJ. Congenital dislocation of the hip–a misleading term: brief report. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1989 Jan;71(1):136.
- Storer, SK. Skaggs, DL. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Oct 15;74(8):1310-1316.
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