Jones Fracture: Fracture of the proximal diaphysis of the 5th metatarsal, distal to the tuberosity, without joint involvement. Caused by foot inversion / twisting and repetitive stress
The term ‘Jones fracture’ is used inconsistently; some referring to fracture at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction and others define it as a fracture at the proximal diaphysis.
The ‘Zone I, II, III‘ method of description is more accurate, replicable and assists in determining immediate treatment and ongoing management.
1902 – Sir Robert Jones, general surgeon with a passion for orthopaedics and radiology, sustained this injury whilst dancing. In 1902 he wrote up a case report of five similar injuries specifically noting that the fracture is caused by ‘indirect violence’
‘Whilst dancing, I trod on the outer side of my foot, my heel at the moment being off the ground. Something gave way midway down my foot, and I at once suspected a rupture of the peroneus longus tendon…The following morning I carefully examined my foot and discovered that my tendon was intact. There was a slight swelling over the base of the fifth metatarsal bone… A finger on the spot gave exquisite pain…Extension of the ankle and flexion of the toes were immediately felt at the base of the fifth metatarsal. I hobbled down-stairs to my colleague…to X-ray my foot. This was done, and the fifth metatarsal was found fractured about three-fourths of an inch from its base.’ [Jones R, Ann Surg. 1902. p697]
1960 – Stewart differentiated an avulsion fracture of the tuberosity / styloid from fractures of the proximal diaphysis. He named the latter: ‘Jones fracture’.
1984 – Torg et al report fractures of proximal diaphysis are likely located at a site of pre-existing stress pressure.
1993 – Lawrence and Botte release a classification system distinguishing 3 zones
- Zone 1: Tuberosity avulsion fracture, with or without involvement of the tarsometatarsal articulation. Caused by forces by the peroneus brevis tendon or the lateral band of the plantar fascia during foot inversion.
- Zone 2: Jones fracture; metaphysis-diaphysis junction fracture, which extend into the fourth-fifth intermetatarsal facet. Caused by forced forefoot adduction with the hindfoot in plantar flexion.
- Zone 3: Diaphyseal stress fracture; proximal diaphyseal fractures, distal to the fourth and fifth metatarsal base articulation. Caused by acute excessive bearing of the region or chronic overloading as in stress fractures
- Sir Robert Jones (1857-1933)
- Zone II 5th Metatarsal fracture
- Stewart IM. Jones’s fracture: fracture of base of fifth metatarsal. Clin Orthop. 1960;16:190-8. [PMID 13834594]
- Torg JS, Balduini FC, Zelko RR, Pavlov H, Peff TC, Das M. Fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal distal to the tuberosity. Classification and guidelines for non-surgical and surgical management. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984 Feb;66(2):209-14. [PMID 6693447]
- Lawrence SJ, Botte MJ. Jones’ fractures and related fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal. Foot Ankle. 1993 Jul-Aug;14(6):358-65. [PMID 8406253]
- Torg JS. Fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal distal to the tuberosity. Orthopedics. 1990;13(7):731–7. [PMID 2197611].
- Torg JS, Balduini FC, Zelko RR, Pavlov H, Peff TC, Das M. Fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal distal to the tuberosity. Classification and guidelines for non-surgical and surgical management. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(2):209–14 [PMID 6693447]
- Petrisor BA, Ekrol I, Court-Brown C. The epidemiology of metatarsal fractures. Foot Ankle Int. 2006 Mar;27(3):172-4. [PMID 16539897]
- Zwitser EW, Breederveld RS. Fractures of the fifth metatarsal; diagnosis and treatment. Injury. 2010 Jun;41(6):555-62. [PMID 19570536]
- Polzer H, Polzer S, Mutschler W, Prall WC. Acute fractures to the proximal fifth metatarsal bone: development of classification and treatment recommendations based on the current evidence. Injury. 2012 Oct;43(10):1626-32. [PMID 22465516]
- Cheung CN, Lui TH. Proximal Fifth Metatarsal Fractures: Anatomy, Classification, Treatment and Complications. Arch Trauma Res. 2016 Dec; 5(4): e33298. [PMC5251206]