Water loss in excess of salt deficit. Hypernatremia is usually due to insufficient water (primarily in patients who either do not experience thirst normally, or cannot act on it). Hypernatraemia occurs less commonly associated with excess salt
Sodium is the major positively charged Cation in ECF. It determines ECF volume. Major intravascular ion to affect osmolality…..an acute increase or decrease in serum sodium will produce an increase or decrease in serum osmolality.
Hyponatraemia: common problem in ICU (30% of patients have a Na < 134mmol/L)
A 20 year old male presents with 3 days of lethargy and generalised malaise. He is confused and looks very unwell. Can sort out this metabolic muddle?