Obstruction of the superior vena cava results from mediastinal mass lesions. Features include a plethoric and cyanosed face with periorbital oedema, exophthalmos, conjunctival injection, and venous dilatation in the fundi, distended non-pulsatile neck veins and a positive Pemberton sign.
Palmar erythema is a non-specific finding characterised by a redness of the palmar skin.
Shoulder pain radiating down the arm can be a diagnostic dilemma, with causes arising from multiple visceral and musculoskeletal structures.
Clubbing is an abnormality of the fingertips with following features: beaked nails; loss of angle between nail bed and finger; increased AP width of finger tip; sponginess of proximal nail bed
Ventricular fibrillation and (pulseless) ventricular tachycardia mandate immediate CPR, advanced life support and correction of underlying causes.
Tachycardia refers to heart rate >100/min in an adult. Tachycardias are classified as regular or irregular, narrow complex or wide complex. The underlying causes of tachycardia are legion
SVTs are supraventricular tachycardias, that can be either atrial tachydysrhythmias (such as atrial fibrillation) or atrioventricular tachydysrhythmias. This document concerns the latter.
Shock is a state of circulatory failure characterised by globally impaired tissue perfusion that is insufficient for needs of the body.
Pulseless electrical activity mandates immediate CPR and correction of underlying causes.
The approach to non-traumatic chest pain requires the early recognition and exclusion of potential life threats, then further consideration of other causes.