Post-cardiac arrest syndrome (aka post-resuscitation syndrome). Occurs after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following cardiorespiratory arrest and involves multiple systems Reflects a state of whole-body ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion
Location of gas on the abdominal x-ray may suggest the the underlying cause. Differential diagnosis
Pulsus paradoxus is defined as an inspiratory drop in blood pressure of 10mmHg or more during normal breathing.
Heart murmurs are abnormal heart sounds believed to be caused by turbulent flow across heart valves or vascular abnormalities. When assessing a murmur, determine 6 characteristics: position at which it is loudest, grade, timing, duration, presence of a thrill, radiation and changes during respiration or with dynamic manoeuvers
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas and involves activation of proteolytic enzymes that may progress to haemorrhagic necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma
There are 3 major patterns of pulmonary opacity: Airspace filling; Interstitial patterns; and Atelectasis
Hyperammonemia: High levels of ammonia in the blood (typical reference range, 11-35 umol/L). This is rare, except in the presence of liver failure.
Pseudoinfiltrates are chest x-ray findings that may be mistaken for lung lesions
Hilar enlargement reflects one of 4 types of processes: Lymphadenopathy and tumors; Pulmonary venous hypertension; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; or Increased pulmonary blood flow
Genital ulcers may be infectious or non-infectious in origin. Differential diagnosis
Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is classically bleeding from above the ligament of Trietz (the suspensory muscle of duodenum that connects to the diaphragm), can is characterised by haemetemesis and melaena.
Although abdominal pain is generally considered a surgical disease, there are countless medical causes of abdominal pain to consider. See also abdominal pain.