Graves disease: Autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. A form of hyperthyroidism manifesting the triad of goitre, exophthalmos and pretibial myxoedema.
Graves ophthalmopathy or Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves disease
History of Parry-Graves-Basedow disease:
The eponymic terms Parry and Graves as applied to exophthalmic goitre illustrate very well the disadvantages of the general use of proper names in classifying diseases.
For many years, in English speaking countries, this type of disease of the thyroid gland has been called Graves disease, following the proposal of Trousseau of Paris. However, in 1897 Sir William Osler called attention to a description of the same condition as noted by Caleb Hillier Parry in 1786 and published in Parry’s posthumous writings in 1825 ten years before Graves’ publication. In Germany the use of the term Basedow disease is generally accepted (Basedow being German).
1786 – Caleb Hillier Parry (1755–1822) was an English physician whose posthumous publication in 1825 includes detailed description of throid enlargement associated with tachyarrhythmias and ocular signs of exophthalmos. The term ‘Parry disease‘ was suggested by Sir William Osler (1898;836-837).
The part swelled was the thyroid gland. The carotid arteries on each side were greatly distended ; the eyes were protruded from their sockets, and the countenance exhibited an appearance of agitation and distress, especially on any muscular exertion, which I have rarely seen equalled. Parry, 1825
1835 – Robert James Graves (1796-1853) described a case of exophthalmos associated with an enlargement of the thyroid gland. The term ‘Graves disease‘ was suggested by French physician Armand Trousseau ‘Du Goître Exophthalmique, ou Maladie de Graves.‘ in 1862.
the eyeballs were visibly enlarged, to such a degree the eyelids were unable to shut during sleep and when trying to close the eye. When the eyes were open the white of the eyes could be seen in the breadth of several lines around all of cornea.‘ 1835;7:516-517
1840 – Karl Adolph von Basedow (1799-1854) reported the same group of symptoms with an emphasis on exophthalmos in four cases. – The term ‘Morbus Basedowii (Basedow disease)‘ was suggested by Georg Hirsch in Klinische Fragmente. 1858;2:224-225.
‘There appeared an eminent protrusion of the eye balls, which by the way were absolutely healthy and had a completely full sight. In spite of this the sick woman was sleeping with open eyes and had a frightening appearance.’ Basedow 1840 (Madame G)
- Diffuse toxic goitre
- Exophthalmic goitre
- Graves-Basedow disease
- Basedow disease
- Basedow’sche Krankheit
- Parry disease
We have to contend not only with Nationalism but with dates of observation and publication. In regard to descriptions of exophthalmic goitre, the following dates are important. Parry, noted in 1786, published in 1825; Flajani 1802; Demours 1821; Scarpa 1821; Graves 1835; Basedow 1840 and Stokes 1854. Without a doubt other doctors observed the condition many years before any of these men, and it requires only a Trousseau or an Osler to popularize the use of an additional eponym for exophthalmic goitre – Medical Classics (5) 1940
- Parry CH. Affections of the heart and thyroid gland. In:Collections from the unpublished medical writings of the late Caleb Hillier Parry. 1825.
- Graves RJ. Newly observed affection of the thyroid gland in females. London Medical and Surgical Journal. 1835;7:516-517
- Basedow KA. Exophthalmos durch Hypertrophie des Zellgewebes in der Augenhöhle. Medicinische Blätter: Wochenschrift für die gesamte Heilkunde. 1840;6:197-204, 220-228
- Cooper WW. On protrusion of the eyes in connexion with anemia, palpitation, and goitre. London Journal of Medicine. 1849;1(7):658-677
- Hirsch G. Cardiogmus Strumosus. In: Klinische Fragmente. 1858;2:224-225 [Hirsch: suggests Basedow disease]
- Trousseau A. Du Goître Exophthalmique, ou Maladie de Graves. In: Clinique médicale de l’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. 1862;2:614-654 [Trousseau: suggests Graves disease]
- Osler W. The Principles and Practice of Medicine: 3e. 1898;836-837 [Osler: suggests Parry disease]
- Cadogan M. Eponymythology: Diffuse Toxic Goitre. LITFL 2018
- Nabipour I, Burger A, Moharreri MR, Azizi F. Avicenna, the first to describe thyroid-related orbitopathy. Thyroid. 2009 Jan;19(1):7-8. [PMID 19119980]
- Wheeler MH. A tale of two celts. World J Surg. 2010 Jun;34(6):1151-6. [PMID 19953250]
- Major RH. Classic Descriptions of Disease: With Biographical Sketches of the Authors. 3e. Thomas; 1945:275-286
- Lindholm J, Laurberg P Hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos, and goiter: historical notes on the orbitopathy. Thyroid. 2010 Mar;20(3):291-300. [PMID 20187784]
- Cadogan M. Eponymythology: Diffuse Toxic Goitre. LITFL. 2018
- Cadogan M. Eponymythology: Graves orbitopathy. LITFL. 2018
- Cadogan M. Eponymictionary: Graves Orbiopathy. LITFL. 2018