Philip Raikes Bromage

Philip Raikes Bromage (1920 – 2013) was a British anaesthetist.

Best known for popularizing epidural analgesia/anaesthesia and his textbook Epidural Analgesia

Bromage published 118 articles and letters on topics ranging from local anesthetics (bupivacaine, lidocaine, etidocaine, carbonation); the physiology and pharmacology of epidural anesthesia; pain management; and the neurological complications associated with neuraxial anesthesia.

  • Born 1920 in Richmond, London
  • Educated in Benedictine College of Ampleforth in Yorkshire
  • 1938-1943 – Medical student at St Thomas’s hospital, London
  • 1943 – House officer in ENT and Orthopaedics under George Perkins and Rowley Bristoe
  • 1944 – Joined the Merchant Navy – became the ships surgeon on a cargo steamer (HMS Salween) converted to troop carrying on the Burma Campaign
  • 1945 – Bromage took an ex service medical post at the Municipal Hospital at Southend-on-Sea, Essex under Dr Alfred Lee.
  • 1946-1947– Registrarship at West Middlex Hospital, Isleworth – Bromage incorporated Regional anaesthesia techniques in patients with thoracic and upper abdominal surgery. to assist the patients early ambulation and to extend the post operative pain free physical therapy period. Bromage developed the scoring system to guide safe early ambulation of post operative patients.
  • 1948-1955 – Consultantship at Chichester, West Sussex. During this time Bromage published the first edition of Epidural Anaesthesia
  • 19561970 – Bromage emigrated to Montreal, Canada and joined the McGill Faculty as an Associate Professor under Dr. Harold Griffith
  • 1970-1977– Chairman of the McGill department of Anaesthesia at the Royal Victoria Hospital
  • 1978 – Moved to Duke University, North Carolina and Published the second edition of Epidural Anaesthesia
  • 1981 – Chairman of the department of clinical anaesthesia in Denver, Colorado
  • 1985-1987 – Worked on the exchange program as Professor at King Khaled University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 1988-1990 –  Scientist-in-Residence at The Medical Center of Delaware and Professor at Thomas Jefferson University Medical School
  • 1991 – Retired from clinical practice
  • Died June 7th 2013 in Williston, Vermont, USA
Medical Eponyms

The Bromage score is an assessment of the intensity of motor blockade originally described as below with sensory blockade to S5.

Bromage score for motor blockade with S5 sensory Block
Major Publications

eponymictionary CTA


the person behind the name

Resident Medical Officer currently working in Emergency Department at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. Pianist and avid Golfer  | LinkedIn |

Emergency physician MA (Oxon) MBChB (Edin) FACEM FFSEM with a passion for rugby; medical history; medical education; and asynchronous learning #FOAMed evangelist. Co-founder and CTO of Life in the Fast lane | Eponyms | Books | Twitter |

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