Virginia Apgar (1909 – 1974) was an American anesthesiologist.
Leader in the emerging field of Anaesthetics in the 1940s and latter Obstetric Anaesthesia as well the new field of teratology (congenital abnormalities) from 1960
1972 published ‘Is my baby all right? A guide to birth defects’, bestselling book exploring the common causes of birth defects and their treatments as well as guidance and advice to help women have healthy babies
- Born June 7, 1909 in Westfield, New Jersey United States
- 1933 Graduated as MD from Colombia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
- 1933-1935 Surgical internship at Columbian-Presbyterian Hospital- head of department Allen Oldfather Whipple
- 1936-1938 Started to peruse career training in Anaesthesia; trained with nurse anaesthetist at Colombia-Presbyterian Hospital, Dr Ralph Waters’s at the University of Wisconsin and Dr Emery Rovenstine at Bellevue Hospital in New York
- 1938 Returned to Columbian-Presbyterian Hospital and appointed the Head of the newly formed department of Anaesthesia
- 1949 Appointed first female full time professor at Colombia University of Physicians and Surgeons
- 1953 Published first article on APGAR score
- 1958-1959 Masters of Public Health degree from Johns Hopkins University Marylands
- 1959 Became director of the division of congenital abnormalities at the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (now known as March of Dimes)
- 1965-1973 Lecturer and clinical professor of Paediatrics at Cornell University College of Medicine
- 1967-1968 Director of Basic Medical Research at National Foundation
- Died 7th August 1974 of Liver Failure
APGAR scoring system for newborns (1953)
The APGAR scoring system is a comprehensive screening tool which should be used to assess newborns at birth and can assist in identifying the need for any immediate attention/ intervention that baby needs. A practical method to evaluate the condition of a new born by using five simple signs:
- Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration
Whilst she was a surgical internship at Columbian-Presbyterian Hospital, the head of department, Allen Whipple (of the pancreatic surgery), discouraged her from perusing a career in Surgery as he had already educated some female surgeons who had not succeeded; he directed instead towards training in Anaesthesia. It was later said that he believed that she had the ‘energy, intelligence and ability needed to make significant contributions in this area.’
Although privately Apgar would share her frustration regarding gender and financial inequities within Medicine, she never let this be a barrier and channeled her passion into constantly striving to develop the boundaries of emerging specialties.
- Apgar V. A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Curr Res Anesth Analg. 1953 Jul-Aug;32(4):260-7.
- Apgar V. Oxygen as a Supportive Therapy in Fetal Anoxia. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1950 Jul; 26(7): 474–478
- Apgar V , Papper EM. Transmission of drugs across the placenta. Curr Res Anesth Analg. 1952 Sep-Oct;31(5):309-20.
- Apgar V. The Role of Anesthesiology in Reducing Neonatal Mortality. New York State Journal of Medicine, 1955; 55: 2365-2368.
- Apgar V. Infant Resuscitation. Postgrad Med. 1956 May;19(5):447-50
- Apgar V. The newborn (Apgar) scoring system. Reflections and advice. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1966 Aug;13(3):645-50
- Bateman BT, Alston TA. Commonly used eponyms in anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 2009 Feb;21(1):67-71
- Maltby R. Notable Names in Anaesthesia. The Choir Press; (2013) pp 4-5
- The Virginia Apgar Papers. US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from National Library of Medicine- Profiles in Science
- Smith, C. (1974). In Memoriam: Dr Virginia Apgar. The Mount Holyoke Alumnae Quarterly, pp. 178-179.
- Medicine, U.S. Nationbal Library of. Dr Virginia Apgar. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from Changing the face of Medicine:
- Robins, J. (2002, December 1). Finding Aid to the Virginia Apgar Collection.
- Van Robays, J. (2015). The story of Virginia Apgar. Facts, Views & Visions in OBGYN, 192-197.
- Giuca MS, Desai SP. Eponyms in the operating room: careers of five American physicians. Bull Anesth Hist. 2013 Oct;31(2):32-5, 39.
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