Where are all the Women?

It’s time for another deep dive into eponymythology, although on this occasion it is through the roiling ocean of gender imbalance. A recent tweet in the #FOAMed community questioned the audience’s ability to identify just three female medical pioneers who had been honoured with the distinction of eponymous attribution.

andrewjtagg name eponymous conditions named after women

The results were telling.

The thread of comments following the tweet managed to identify only 45 female eponyms. A mistake, surely. Of the thousands of eponymous terms in use, how could there be so few attributed to females?

Following this, we analysed the lists of eponyms hosted on the popular online resource, WhoNamedIt? Their alphabetical list of women eponyms boasts 131 entries. However, on closer inspection only 80 (62%) of the entries were associated with eponymous terms which included the female eponym; and of these, only 41 (31%) had a formal biography.

Further research online revealed a similar story. Even females associated with widely used eponymous terms had little to no recorded biographical information in comparison to their male counterparts. For example, Lilly Dubowitz, a paediatric neurologist who developed the Dubowitz Score with her husband Victor, is deserving only of a property based tagline as “Victor Dubowitz’s wife“.

Lilly Dubowitz as Victor Dubowitz wife wiki

It seemed an obvious hypothesis to investigate: Women are underrepresented in the realm of medical eponyms. Once that could be proven, a biographical database of these female pioneers would be the next goal.

Table of Contents

Introduction and Background

The use of eponyms in the field of medicine has been commonplace for centuries. There is ongoing debate regarding the accuracy, effectiveness, and, more recently, cultural appropriateness of the use of eponyms, but, for the moment, they remain ingrained in medical communication.

The majority of eponymous terms were characterised prior to women being formally allowed to practice medicine. By the time women were joining their male counterparts in medicine, the period of decline of granting eponyms had begun. Eponymous terms had given way to descriptive nomenclature.

Although most eponyms now have an approved and accepted modern alternative, many clinicians continue to utilise and teach eponymous terms in their daily practice, and as they remain historically relevant, it is important to identify and celebrate the distinguished women who characterised syndromes and other medical terms that bear their names, the way we do their male peers.

There is properly no History, only Biography.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Essay 1: History, 1841

Definitions

For the purposes of this review we used the following definitions.

Aims

  • Create a comprehensive database of eponymous terms and their related eponyms
  • Highlight those eponyms identifying as female and confirm a related eponymous term
  • Create a biographical database of female eponyms

Method

We interrogated our offline database of eponymous terms used for signs, syndromes, conditions, procedures, anatomical structures and classification systems compiled from textbook and online sources. We identified 7221 eponymous terms and 3504 eponyms, an average of 2 terms per author.

The year of the original publication relating to the eponymous term as well as the country of birth, sex, maiden name, marital name, occupation and date of birth/death of the eponym (author) were recorded. Resources used to interrogate the data included PubMed, National Library of Medicine, HathiTrust Digital Library, Wikipedia, WhoNamedIt?, Newspapers, Ancestry, and the Internet Archive.

Where no biographic source could be readily identified, we contacted affiliated universities, research groups and specialists to obtain further information.

Eponymous terms containing the name of at least one female eponym were extracted for further evaluation. Where an eponym has more than one associated eponymous term only the eponym and the earliest affiliated eponymous term was recorded for analysis.

Results of the search were compiled in an offline database and graphical analysis was used to compare male and female eponyms over time. Biographies for the male and female eponyms were compiled and eponymous terms defined with contextual bibliographic material.

Results

3504 eponyms were identified. Of these, there were 3374 (96%) male eponyms and 130 (4%) female eponyms.

Eponymous terms

  • 130 female eponyms shared 156 eponymous terms, an average of 1.2 terms per author. The average number of eponymous terms per male author was 2.2 (7065/3374).
  • The average date of publication of an eponyms first eponymous term was 1972 for females and 1891 for males.

Biographic data

  • 32% of female eponyms are still alive compared to 5% of male eponyms. Of those deceased the average year of birth (1907) and death (1982) for females is more recent than their male counterparts (1856/1919)
  • Only 43% of female eponyms had formal journal obituary or Wikipedia profile or other online biography; compared with 91% of males
Percentage of eponyms with full accessible biography
Fig 1. Percentage of males and females with online biography
  • Female eponyms hail from 27 different countries, but were very Americo-centric with the United States (50%), England (9%), Germany (8%), and Canada (6%) making up the majority. Male eponyms, on the other hand, were distinctly more European: with Germany making up 19%, France 16%, England 15%, and the United States 10%; almost certainly reflecting the power shifts in Empires over time.
  • The flavour of specialties is also unique, with female eponyms comprising geneticists, paediatricians and pathologists. The men had a preponderance of anatomists, surgeons, neurologists, psychiatrists, physicians and physiologists.

MaleFemale
Eponymous term per eponym2.21.2
Still alive5% (180)32% (42)
Average Year of birth18561907
Average Year of death19191982
Average Year of publication18911972
Journal Article / Obituary59% (1976)22% (28)
WhoNamedIt Profile92% (3102)32% (41)
Wikipedia Profile90% (3020)43% (56)

The other relevant findings were the comparison of women in the global workforce, with the rise and fall of eponyms over time.

The peak of eponymous attribution was in the late 1800s and early 1900s with eponymous terms often being used as placeholders with the exact nature of conditions not yet understood. With better classification systems, enhanced knowledge of pathogenesis, improved global nomenclature, and a more rigorous approach to naming systems – eponymous attribution has seen a sharp decline.

Female and Male unique eponyms over time
Fig 2. Female and Male unique eponyms over time

In 1910 female physicians made up 1% of the medical workforce. The most rapid rate of growth has been in the last 30 years from 29% in 1990, to 38% in 2000 and 49% in 2020.

Percentage of female physicians in the workforce 2000-2020
Fig 3. Percentage of female physicians in the workforce 2000-2020

The percentage of female physician representation within the medical workforce closely matches the rate of percentage growth of eponymous terms attributed to women.

Female workforce representation versus eponymous attributions over time
Fig 4. Female workforce representation versus eponymous attributions over time

Discussion

The hypothesis, that women are underrepresented in the medical realm of eponyms, does not hold up, despite how it appears at first glance. Women achieving parity with men in the global medical workforce is relatively recent. The golden age of eponymizing was over way before this equality was reached. The peak of eponymous attribution was in the late 1800s and early 1900s, so as a proportion of women in medicine at the time, there was reasonable representation. Women never got the chance to catch up. Where there is a staggering gender mismatch, however, is in the biographical evidence available to us of these remarkable women, who, by their very nature were trailblazers.

Why should we care about this anachronistic slice of medicine? Well, we all still use eponyms. They bring colour and history to medicine. They have hidden, and often extraordinary narratives that lie beneath them: our heritage, our medical ancestry. Eponyms are given to honour such souls, the shoulders of giants upon which we sit and practice today. We know their stories through their collective biographies. The clear proportional lack of biographical data on the female eponyms, however, tarnishes this tradition.

One may argue that this is merely a historical issue, done and dusted, however we still do not have gender equity by many metrics today, even in the presence of equal (or greater) medical admission numbers. Unless we recognise the inadequacies of the past, it is difficult to progress soundly into the future.

Eponyms have other shadows. The bestowal and use of eponyms was also a little random, inconsistent, idiosyncratic, and heavily influenced by local geography and culture. Sometimes there were less than truthful accounts of how diseases were discovered; evidence being less obligatory back in the day. There is also the element of ‘ownership’, particularly of body parts. Nowhere is that more evident than in the pelvis, where you can’t round a corner without crashing into a part with the name of some long-dead man and his flag plant on it.

Eponyms are unlikely to be granted in any number again. Thus, gender parity will not likely  ever be reached in relation to terminology. We can, however, right a few wrongs, by establishing a biographical database of the pioneering woman whose names are branded on the terms that we still use in medicine today, so that they are celebrated and known in their own right, regardless of their matrimonial status.

Conclusion

Where are all the women in the history of medical eponymisation? They are present; their numbers are simply dwarfed. We can be generous and state that the reasons for the small absolute numbers merely reflect missing the boat. If eponymizing were to continue today, we might hope to see equality in the data. In the absence of possibility of this wild optimism, we can at least recognise the ones whose names we use. Not as somebody’s wife, or with an epithet the biographical equivalent of a pauper’s grave, but in their own right.

Watch this space for a series of biographical treats about our female medical pioneers, including a number who, until recently, had no recorded biography at all.


Eponymous women in medicine

EponymEponymous Term
WHITE, PriscillaWhite Classification of Diabetes in Pregnancy (1949)19001989USA, America, Americanphysician, obstetrical physiciandiabetes, gestational, pregnancy, fetal mortality, maternal mortality, foetal mortality, pre-gestational, pregestational,
WILLIAMS, Anna WesselsPark-Williams bacillus (1894); Williams stain (1905); Park-Williams fixative18631954USA, America, Americanbacteriologist, immunologisttrachoma, rabies, diphtheria, antitoxin
VAN LOHUIZEN, Cato H JVan Lohuizen syndrome (1922)18931937Dutch, Holland, Netherlands, Nederlandspediatric paediatricianCutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita (CMTC)
LAXOVA, RenataNeu-Laxová syndrome (1971)1931Czech, čeština, TschechischPaediatric geneticistholocaust, nicholas winton, Polgar, PHGDH, ichthyosis, marked intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, short neck, central nervous system anomalies, lissencephaly
IMERSLUND, OlgaImerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (1960)19071987Norway, Norge, NorwegianPaediatricianJuvenile megaloblastic anaemia, Megaloblastic anaemia 1 (MGA 1), Imerslund anaemia, Selective vitamin B12 (cobalamin) malabsorption with proteinuria
LARSEN, Ingegerd FrøyshovHansen-Larsen-Berg syndrome (1976)1937Norway, Norge, NorwegianPhysiciantotal color blindness, progressive cone dystrophy, degenerative liver disease, endocrine dysfunction, Retinohepatoendocrinologic
BELL, JuliaMartin-Bell syndrome (1943)18791879England, English, UK, BritishPhysician
LYON, Mary FrancesLyon hypothesis (1961), Lyonisation (1963)19252014England, English, UK, BritishCytogeneticist
HALL, Judith GoslinHall-Pallister syndrome (1980), Hall type of pseudoachondroplasia1939USA, America, AmericanGeneticist and paediatricianPallister-Hall syndrome, achondroplasia
FORBES, Anne PappenheimerForbes-Albright syndrome (1954)19111992USA, America, AmericanPhysician, endocrinologistgalactorrhea-amenorrhea caused by a chromophobe prolactin-producing adenoma of the pituitary
OPPENHEIMER, Ella HutzlerLanding-Oppenheimer syndrome (1957)18971981USA, AmericaPathologistCeroid storage disease in childhood, lipidoses
REED, Dorothy MabelReed-Sternberg cells (1902)18741964USA, America, Americanpathology, pediatric, public healthsternberg, hodgkin, lymphoma, milk, Madison, wisconsin, Mendenhall,
GRÖNBLAD, Ester ElizabethGrönblad-Strandberg syndrome (1929)18981970Sweden, Swedish, svenskaOphthalmologyPXE, angiod streaks, Furusund, ophthalmologist, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Groenblad,
CALL, Emma LouiseCall-Exner body (1875)18471937Physician, anatomistUSA, America, Americangranulosa cell tumours, Graafscher Follikel, Siegmund Exner, gonadoblastomas; sclerosing stromal tumours of the ovary; and in endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary
ASHBY, Winfred MayerAshby technique (1919)18791975USA, America, AmericanPathologistpianist, rcc, rbc, erythrocyte, piano, life-span,
BARR, Yvonne MargaretEpstein-Barr virus (1964)19322016Irish, Ireland, Southern Ireland, AustralianVirologistBurkitt, HHSV-4, EBV
MANN, Ida CarolineMann classification of coloboma (1937)18931983England, English, UK, Britishophthalmologist, ophthalmic surgeon, Australia, Perth, slit lamp, Dame, mustard gas, trachoma,
NEILL, Catherine ANeill-Dingwall syndrome (1950), Scimtar syndrome (1960)19212006England, English, UK, Britishcardiologist, paediatrician, pediatricsscimitar, Cockayne, progeria, pulmonary hypoplasia and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR)
BERG, Katherine OBerg Balance Scale (1989)Canada, CanadianPhysio, physical therapyfrailty, balance
WATERLOW, Judy AWaterlow score (1985)1933England, English, UK, BritishNurse, nursing, pressure sore
BARTHEL, Dorothy WBarthel index (1965)19112003USA, America, AmericanPhysio, physical therapistgeriatrics, stroke,
ANSELL, Barbara MaryAnsell-Bywaters-Elderking syndrome (1975)19232001England, English, UK, BritishPaediatric rheumatologistCINCA, NOMID, arthritis, pediatric, rhematology
SAKATI, Nadia AwniSakati-Nyhan-Tisdale syndrome (1971); Woodhouse–Sakati syndrome (1983); Sanjad-Sakati syndrome (1991)1938Syrian, Saudipediatriciancongenital, genetics, inbred
HOLT, Mary ClaytonHolt-Oram syndrome (1960)19241993England, English, UK, Britishphysician, cardiologycardiac rehabilitation, ASD, hand malformations, triphalangeal,
MENTEN, Maud LeonoraMichaelis-Menten equation (1913); Menten-Junge-Green method (1844)18791960Canada, CanadianPhysician, biochemist, pathologistSalmonella toxin, vitamin C, sedimentation, haemoglobin, protein electrophoresis,
DUBOWITZ, LillyDubowitz Score (1970), Dubowitz neurology examination (1980)19302016Hungary, Hungarian, Magyarpaediatrics, pediatric, neurologyneonatology, neurological exam, tone, power, pre-term, full-term, Sebők
ANDERSEN, Dorothy HansineAndersen disease (1956); Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas (1938)19011963USA, America, AmericanPaediatrician, pediatricsGlycogen storage disease type IV, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, sweat test, trypsin
GAMSTORP, IngridGamstorp disease (1956); Gamstorp-Wohlfart Syndrome (1959)19242007Sweden, Swedish, svenskaPaediatric neurologist
KLUMPKE, AugustaKlumpke palsy (1885)18591927USA, America, AmericanNeurologistbrachial, plexus, mother,
SANTAVUORI, PirkkoSantavuori syndrome (1973), Muscle–Eye–Brain (MEB) disease (1977)19332004Finalnd, Suomi, Suomen tasavalta, Finnishpediatric neurologistSantavuori-Haltia syndrome, Hagberg, infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia, IOSCA, INCL, MED, Jansky-Bielchowsky disease,
DE LANGE, Cornelia CatharinaCornelia de Lange syndrome (1933)18711951Dutch, Holland, Netherlands, NederlandsPaediatricianCongenital hypertrophy of the muscles, extrapyramidal motor disturbances and mental deficiency
HORAN, Margaret BurtonNance-Horan syndrome (1974)19092004Australiapediatriciancataracts-oto-dental, syndrome, X-linked cataract-dental syndrome, X-linked, congenital cataracts and microcornea, Hutchinson
BLACKWELL, ElizabethElizabeth Blackwell Award; National Women Physicians Day 18211910England, English, UK, BritishPhysicianFemale Physician
WILLIAMS, Cicely DelphineKwashiorkor (1933)18931992Jamaica, Jamaican Patois, Paediatrician, nutritionist, activistadvocate, world health, malnutrition, nutrition, child health, breast feeding, ackee fruit, Kwashiorkor,
DICK, Gladys RowenaDick Test (1924)18811963USA, America, Americanphysician, pathologistscarlet fever, toxin, antitoxin, vaccine, hemolytic strep
HOGG, Georgina RuthBirt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (1977)19162002Canada, CanadianPathologist Hornstein-Knickenberg, fibrofolliculoma
APGAR, VirginiaAPGAR score (1953)19091974USA, America, AmericanAnaesthetistPaeds Score, backronym, Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration
JOSEPH, Sister MarySister Joseph Nodule (1928)18561939USA, America, AmericanNurse, sistercancer, metastasis, umbilicus, adenocarcinoma, julia, dempsey, DEMPSEY, Julia, hamilton bailey, mayo
DIX, Margaret RuthDix–Hallpike test (1952)19021991USA, America, AmericanNeurologistElicitation of extreme vertigo upon lateral movement of a patient's head when lying in a supine position
NITABUCH, RaissaNitabuch membrane1859Russia, Russian, РоссияPhysician, anatomistplacenta, fibrinoid layer,
WINTERHALTER, ElisabethWinterhalter's ganglia (1896)18561952German, Germany, Deutsche, Deutschlandneuroanatomist, physician, feministovary, ganglion, ganglia, autonomic,
SCHACHOWA, SeraphimaSchachowa spiral tubes1854Russia, Russian, Россияhistologisttubuli renales
POTTER, Edith LouisePotter syndrome (1946); Potter facies; Potter sequence; Potter classification of polycystic kidney disease (1964) 19011993USA, America, Americanpediatric, pathologistfacies, syndrome, oligohydramnios, renal agensis
BOIVIN, Marie Anne VictoireBivalve Vaginal Speculum (1825); Boivin Intropelvimeter17731841France, French, françaismidwifemidwife, speculum
GASKIN, Ina MaeGaskin (all fours) manoeuvre (1976)1940USA, America, AmericanMidwife birth, all 4's, fours, shoulder dystocia
LÜER, Jeanne AmélieLuer Syringe (1896)18361910German, Germany, Deutsche, DeutschlandManufacturerEquipment, syringe
STRAUSS, LotteChurg–Strauss syndrome (1951)19131985German, Germany, Deutsche, DeutschlandPathologistVasculitis, Eosinphilia, Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, EGPA
LOUIS-BAR, DeniseLouis-Bar syndrome (1941)19141999Belgium, Belgique, België, Belgien, FlemishNeuropathologistataxia telangiectasia
OLLENDORF, HeleneBuschke-Ollendorff syndrome (1928)18991982Germany, Deutschlanddermatologist
CURTH, Helene OllendorffCurth-Macklin syndrome (1954); Ollendorf probe sign (1923); Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome (1928); Curth’s criteria for the diagnosis of cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes (1976)18991982Germany, Deutschlanddermatologist
WALKER, Mary BroadfootMary Walker Effect (1934)18881974Scottish, ScotlandPhysicianphysostigmine, neostigmine, prostigmin, Myasthenia Gravis,
WOLCOTT, Carol Nancy DettmanWolcott-Rallison syndrome (1972)19411994USA, America, Americanpediatrician
DE BARSY, Anne-Mariede Barsy syndrome (1938)1939Belgium, Belgique, België, Belgien, Flemishneurologist
WARBURG, MetteWalker-Warburg syndrome (12971)19262015Danish, Denmark, Danskophthalmologist
WYNNE-DAVIES, RuthWynne Davies Ligamentous Laxity (1970)19262012England, English, UK, Britishorthopaedic, geneticgenetics, scoliosis,
KLUMPKE, AugustaKlumpke paralysis18591927USA, America, AmericanNeurologistpalsy, paralysis
NOONAN, Jacqueline AnneNoonan syndrome (1968)1921USA, America, Americanpediatrician, cardiologist
SGARBOSSA, Elena BSgarbossa criteria (1996)Argentinian, ArgentinaCardiologistChest Pain, Criteria
FREY-GOTTESMAN, LucjaFrey syndrome (1923)18891942Poland, PolskaPhysicianhyperhidrosis, lemon, auriculotemporal syndrome, parotid gland, gun shot wound, jewish, concentration camp, ghetto
HURLER, GertrudHurler syndrome (1920); Hurler-Scheie syndrome (1962)18891965German, Germany, Deutsche, DeutschlandPaediatricianMPS, gargoyle, gargoylism, Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS 1, MPS 1-H,
CANAVAN, Myrtelle MayCanavan disease (1931)18791953USA, America, AmericanNeuropathologist spongy
LÉVY, GabrielleRoussy-Lévy syndrome (1926); Lhermitte-Lévy syndrome (1931)18861935FranceNeurologist
CANADA, Wilma JeanCronkhite-Canada syndrome (1955)19262017USA, America, AmericanRadiology, radiologistpolyposis, ectodermal, diner
KNICKENBERG, MonikaHornstein-Knickenberg syndrome (1975)German, Germany, Deutsche, DeutschlandDermatologyBirt-Hogg-Dubé, perifollicular fibromas, extracutaneous cancer, colon polyps
MERRITT, Katharine KromKasabach–Merritt syndrome (1940)18861986USA, America, Americanpediatrician, physicianthrombopenic purpura, hemangioma
ABBOTT, Maude ElizabethRokitansky-Maude Abbott syndrome (1924)18691940Canada, CanadianPathology, pathologistostium primum, mitral valve, congenital cardiac disease
MACKLIN, Madge ThurlowCurth-Macklin syndrome (1954)18931962USA, America, Americangeneticisteugenics, canada, icthyosis, IHCM,
BONNEVIE, Kristine Elisabeth HeuchBonnevie-Ullrich syndrome (1934, 1936)18721948Norway, Norge, NorwegianBiologist, geneticist, zoologistzoology, house mouse, micro bleb, polydactyly
DABSKA, Maria MagdalenaDąbska tumor (1969)19212014Poland, Polish, Polskie, Polskapathology, pathologist, oncologistParachordoma, surgical pathology,
CORI, Gerty TheresaCori cycle (1929); Cori ester (1936)18961957Czech, čeština, Tschechisch, Czech Republic, Česká republikabiochemistG1p, glucose, glycogen
SCHACHENMANN, Gertrud DinaSmith-Theiler-Schachenmann syndrome (1966)19101997Swiss, schweizerisch, Switzerland, Pediatricianrib widening, microganthia
KLEEFSTRA, TjitskeKleefstra syndrome (2006)1970Dutch, Holland, Netherlands, Nederlandsclinical genetics, geneticistKleefstras syndrom, 9q subtelomere deletion syndrome (9qSTDS), EHMT1, haploinsufficiency
GARRETT ANDERSON, Elizabeth18361917England, English, UK, BritishPhysicianfirst female physician in the UK
WELANDER, LisaWelander distal myopathy (1951); Kugelberg-Welander syndrome (1956)19092001Sweden, Swedish, svenskaNeurologist
SABIN, FlorenceMees lines (1901)18711953USA, America, AmericanAnatomist, scientist, medical research
JOHANSON, Ann JJohanson-Blizzard syndrome (1971)19342020USA, America, AmericanPaediatric endocrinologistshort stature, growth hormone, Turner,
LøKEN, Aagot ChristieSenior-Løken syndrome (1961)19112007Norway, Norge, NorwegianNeuropathologist
CANALE, Virginia ClaireCanale-Smith syndrome (1967)19362005USA, America, Americanpediatric HaematologistChronic lymphadenopathy simulating malignant lymphoma
KAVEGGIA, Elizabeth GathyOptiz-Kaveggia syndrome (1974) [FG Syndrome], Kaveggia syndrome (1975)19262014Hungary, Hungarian, MagyarPaediatrician, geneticistrain man, dustin hoffman, vermis
BABER, Margaret DoreenBaber syndrome (1956)19101997Wales, Welsh, Cymrupaediatrician, pediatriccirrhosis, amino-aciduria, Fanconi
ILLIG, RuthIllig syndrome (1970)19242017German, Germany, Deutsche, Deutschlandpediatric endocrinologist
BIANCO-SILVERSTRONI, IdaSilvestroni-Bianco anaemia (1948)19172006Italy, ItaliaPhysician, hematologistthalassemia, hematology, Italy
AL-GAZALI, LihadhAl Gazali Syndrome (1994); Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndrome (1998)Iraq, UAE, Arabgenetics, research, pediatric, paediatric
NELSON, Matilda MaryEmery-Nelson syndrome (1970)19302010England, English, UK, British, south african, south africaGeneticist, human genetics
NOACK, MargotNoack syndrome (1959)1909German, Germany, Deutsche, Deutschlandorthopedic, pediatricApert, Pfeiffer, Oegg, acrocephalosyndactyly
GOUTIERES, FrancoiseAicardi-Goutieres syndrome (1984)France, French, françaisneurologist, pediatric
TOLKSDORF, MarlisWiedemann-Tolksdorf syndrome (1973)1924German, Germany, Deutsche, DeutschlandPaediatrician, pediatrics, cytogenetics
ANDERSEN, Ellen DamgaardAndersen syndrome, Andersen-Tawil syndrome (1971)Denmark, DanmarkPhysician
SCHNITZLER, LilaneSchnitzler syndrome (1972)1938France, French, françaisdermatologist
BLOOMBERG, Esther LillianAlbright-Butler-Bloomberg disease (1937)1907USA, America, Americanchemist, technician
DIESENDRUCK, Judith AbarbanelNelson-Diesendruck basal medium (1952)19202007Russian born, USA, America, AmericanBacteriologistJewish, Zionist, Pioneer Women, American Professors for peace in the Middle East
HARPER, Rita GilmanHarper syndrome (1967)1934USA, America, AmericanPhysicianSeckel syndrome, bird-headed
CHRISTOL, BernadetteBazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome (1964)19342011France, French, françaisdermatologistJALBY, X-linked, congenital hypotrichosis, follicular atrophoderma, basal cell neoplasms
SAKURAI (Kitagawa), TsuyaSakurai-Lisch nodules (1935)19111995Japanese. Japan, 日本語physician, ophthalmologist
HECHT, Jacqueline TauberHecht-Scott syndrome (1981)USA, America, AmericanGeneticist and paediatricianFACTO, dwarfism, Fibular aplasia-tibial campomelia-oligosyndactyly
HERTWIG, PaulaHertwig-Weyers syndrome (1942)18891983German, Germany, Deutsche, DeutschlandBiologist
MYHRE, Selma AnnMhyre syndrome (1981)19372012USA, America, Americanpediatric, pathology, GeneticistHageman
WARBURG, MetteWalker-Warburg syndrome (1971)19262015Danish, Denmark, Danskophthalmologist
DEES, Susan CAldrich-Dees syndrome (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome)19092001USA, America, AmericanPaediatricianasthma, allergy,
SMITH, Ann C. M.Smith-Magenis syndrome (1986)USA, America, Americangenetic counselor, geneticistmorrison, chisholm,
MAGENIS, Ruth Ellen19252014USA, America, AmericanGeneticist, pediatrician, paediatricianchromosome 15, angelman, prader-willi, 7 children,
DUDLEY, Florence ChisholmAllan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (1943)19021962USA, America, Americanassistant in medical genetics
WOLCOTT, Carol Nancy DettmanWolcott-Rallison syndrome (1972)19411994USA, America, AmericanPaediatrician, pediatricsIDDM, Early-onset diabetes mellitus with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia
SHAFFER, Lisa G.Potocki‐Shaffer syndrome (1996)USA, America, AmericanGeneticist
POTOCKI, LorrainePotocki-Lupski syndrome (2000); Potocki‐Shaffer syndrome (1996)
FITTKE, HildegardDebré-Fittke syndrome (1942)
MEYER, Julia G.Say-Meyer syndrome (1981)
GRANGE, Dorothy KGrange syndrome (1998)USA, AmericaGeneticist
GOLABI, MahinSimpson-Golabi-Behmel syndromeUSA, America, AmericanPaediatrician
LUND, Valerie JLund-Mackay score (1993)England, English, UK, Britishrhinologist, ENTradiologic staging of chronic rhinosinusitis
TINETTI, Mary ETinetti test (1986)USA, AmericaPhysicianBalance, Gait Test
BAKER, KateBaker-Gordon syndrome (2018)Australia, Australian, OzziePhysicianSYT1-associated neurodevelopmental disorder
GORDON, SarahBaker-Gordon syndrome (2018)Australia, Australian, OzziePhysician
FLAITZ, Catherine MAtkin-Flaitz syndrome (1985)USA, America, Americanoral and maxillofacial pathologist and paediatric dentist
ATKIN, Joan FAtkin-Flaitz syndrome (1985)USA, America, AmericanPhysician, anatomist
BEHMEL, AnnemarieSimpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (1984)Geneticist
FOWLER, Clare JulietFowler syndrome (1985)1950England, English, UK, Britishurologist, neuro-urologist
TORIELLO, Helga V.Toriello‐Carey syndrome (1988)1952USA, Americagenetics, geneticistCorpus callosum agenesis facial anomalies Robin sequence; Corpus callosum agenesis-blepharophimosis-Robin sequence syndrome; Agenesis of corpus callosum
YOUNG, FreidaDyke-Young anaemia (1938)19102004England, English, UK, BritishPathology, pathologist
DRAVET, CharlottteDravet syndrome (1982)1936France, French, françaisPsychiatrist, Epileptologistsevere myoclonic epilepsy of infancy SMEI
MENDE, IrmgardMende syndrome (1926)Germany, DeutschlandPhysician
LUTZ-RICHNER, Anna-RegulaLutz-Richner and Landolt syndrome (1973)1942SwitzerlandPaediatrician
THERMAN, EevaPatau syndrome (1960)19162004Finland, Suomi, Finnish, cytogenetecistLilly of the Valley, trisomy 13
VOGT, CécileVogt-Vogt syndrome18751962German, Germany, Deutsche, Deutschlandneuropathologist
BEIGHTON, GretaBeighton Score19392017England, English, UK, British, South Africanursing, genetics, history
PAGON, Roberta AndersonPagon syndrome (1985)1945USA, America, AmericanPaediatrician, pediatrics, genetics
LANCEFIELD, Rebecca CraighillLancefield classification, Lancefield method (1928)18951981USA, America, AmericanBacteriologistBHS, hemolytic, haemolytic, strep

References



eponymictionary CTA

eponymictionary

the names behind the name

Graduated from Cardiff Medical School in 2017 with MBBCh and BSc in Psychology and Medicine. Currently working as a doctor in the emergency department at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Perth, Australia.

Graduated from Southampton Medical School in 2017 with BMBS. Working in Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Emergency Department in Perth, Australia.

Emergency physician. Lives for teaching and loves clinical work, but with social media, she is like the syndromic cousin in the corner who gets brought out and patted on the head once in a while | Literary Medicine | @eleytherius | Website |

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