Wallenberg Syndrome (aka: lateral medullary syndrome or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome) is a neurological disorder with a variety of symptoms associated with posterior circulation ischemic stroke.
The infarcted area in Wallenberg syndrome is supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) usually secondary to atherothrombosis of the vertebral artery (80%), or posterior inferior cerebellar artery.
Risk group is typically the elderly vasculopath presenting with dizziness/vertigo, loss of balance with gait instability, hoarse voice and difficulty swallowing.
Ipsilateral signs include:
- Vertigo with nystagmus
- Horner syndrome
- Ataxia with a tendency to fall towards the side of the lesion
- Altered facial sensation (often with pain and numbness in trigeminal distribution) and altered taste sensation
- Altered pain and temperature sensation in the arms and legs (spinothalamic tract)
1808 – Gaspard Vieusseux (1746-1814) recorded a detailed description of his own illness (suffered on 29th of December, 1807) at a meeting of the Société médicochirugicale de Genève. “Lateral numbness of the face, loss of pain appreciation and temperature in the limbs, dysphasia, hoarseness, tongue problems, hiccups (which disappeared smoking a cigarette in the morning) and inclined eyelid“.
1810 – Alexander Marcet (1770–1822) reproduced the case for the Royal Society ‘The gentleman who is the subject of the following singular case is Dr Vieusseux, an eminent physician of Geneva…whilst in London he was induced to draw up and communicate to the Society the particulars of his own case…‘. Following the death of Vieusseux in 1814, Marcet writes ‘It is much to be regretted that his head was not opened.‘
- Adolf Wallenberg (1862-1949)
- Gaspard Vieusseux (1746-1814)
- Alexander Marcet (1770–1822)
- Charles Foix (1882-1927)
- Lateral medullary syndrome
- Viesseaux-Wallenberg syndrome
- Wallenberg-Foix syndrome
- Posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome (PICA)
- Marcet A. History of a singular Nervous or Paralytic Affection, attended with anomalous morbid sensations. Med Chir Trans. 1811; 2: 217–235. [PMC2128840]
- Wallenberg A. Acute Bulbäraffection (Embolie der Arteria cerebelli posterior inferior sinistra?). Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. 1895. 27: 504–540.
- Wallenberg A. Anatomischer Befund in einem als ‘Akute Bulbäraffektion (Embolie der Art. cerebelli post. inf. sinister?)’ beschriebenen Fälle. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. 1901. 34: 923–959.
- Olivier, de Morsier. Revue médicale de la Suisse romande 1943; 63: 421
- Pearce JM. Wallenberg’s syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 May;68(5):570. [PMC1736933]
- Hong YH et al. Lesion Topography and Its Correlation With Etiology in Medullary Infarction: Analysis From a Multi-Center Stroke Study in China. Front Neurol. 2018 Sep 27;9:813 [PMC6170644]