Category Electrolytes
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Potassium

Potassium is major intracellular cation (sodium is major extracellular) – 90% is exchangeable (70% for sodium). Equilibrium potential of -90mV
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Calcium Metabolism

Calcium: highly regulated cation involved in: cell death, duration and strength of cardiac muscle contraction, muscle contraction in blood vessels, airways and uterus, coagulation, bone metabolism, neurotransmitter and hormone release…
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

SIADH

Syndrome Of Inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) is hyponatraemia due to an increase in concentration of ADH inappropriate to the current osmotic or volume status. The differential diagnosis includes ADH analogues
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Hypokalaemia

Hypokalaemia: the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalised patients; mostly caused by drugs and GI disease
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Hypernatraemia

Hypernatraemia can be caused by a number of critical illnesses: water depletion (decreased intake, hypotonic fluid loss – renal/non-renal); solute excess (Na+ or other)
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Hypercalcaemia

Ca2+ exists in the extracellular plasma two states: (1) free ionized state and (2) bound to other molecules (mostly albumin, rest – beta-globulins, phosphate, citrate) ionized Ca2+ concentration is inversely related to pH -> an increase in pH results in a decrease in ionized Ca2+
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Calcium Replacement

Calcium Replacement: controversial issue; generally accepted that patient should have replacement if ionised Ca2+ < 0.8mmol/L
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Calcium basics

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. 1.5% of body weight; 99% is in bone matrix; 1100gramm (27mmol)