Class

Antihypoglycaemic

  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

Pharmacodynamics
  • Produced by alpha islet cells in pancreas. Multiple organ system effects.
  • Metabolic:
    • Gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, glycogenolysis
    • Pharmacological amounts cause release of insulin from normal pancreatic beta cells
  • Cardiac:
    • Positive inotropic and chronotropic effect
    • Produces effect similiar to beta-receptor agonists without requiring functioning beta-receptors
  • Smooth muscle:
    • Relaxation in large doses
  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

Pharmacokinetics
  • Extensively degraded in liver, kidneys, plasma
  • Half-life 3-6 minutes (similiar to insulin)
  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

Clinical uses
  • Severe hypoglycaemia
    • IV, IM or SC administration
    • 1mg vials
  • Diagnosis of endocrine disorders
  • Previously first-line in beta-blocker overdose
    • Ability to increase cAMP production in heart independent of beta-receptor function
  • Radiology of bowel
  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

Adverse effects
  • Transient nausea/vomiting
  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

Precautions/contraindications
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

Further reading
  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

References
  • Physical examination is normal
  • Aetiology is unknown but patients usually have a normal life span
  • Also referred to as “Effort Syndrome” as symptoms resemble those of fatigue following effort in healthy individuals

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MBBS (UWA) CCPU (RCE, Biliary, DVT, E-FAST, AAA) Emergency Medicine Advanced Trainee in Melbourne, Australia. Special interests in diagnostic and procedural ultrasound, medical education, and ECG interpretation. Editor-in-chief of the LITFL ECG Library. Twitter: @rob_buttner

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