Pharm 101: Intravenous Fluids

Classes
  • Colloid:
    • Albumin
    • Dextran
    • Gelatin
  • Crystalloid:
    • Isotonic: normal saline, Hartmann’s, plasmalyte
    • Hypertonic saline: 3% or 7.5% NaCl
    • Hypotonic: 0.45% NaCl, dextrose (5%, 10%)
  • Blood and blood products

Normal Saline
  • Na 154 mmol/L
  • Cl 154 mmol/L

Compound Sodium Lactate
  • Differs from normal saline with additional of sodium lactate, KCl, CaCl (and pH adjustment)
  • Constituents:
    • Na 130 mmol/L
    • Cl 112 mmol/L
    • K 5.4 mmol/L
    • Ca 1.8 mmol/L
    • Lactate 27 mmol/L
  • Potential advantages:
    • Closer to physiologic – K, Cl
    • Less hyperchloraemia
    • Effective bicarbonate – some (slow) good effect on acidosis

Complications of crystalloid fluid therapy
  • APO
  • Hypothermia
  • Dilutional coagulopathy
  • Acidosis
  • Tissue edema; limb and abdominal compartment syndromes
  • Electrolyte abnormalities
  • Extravasation
  • Air embolism
  • Infection

References

Pharm 101 700

Pharmacology 101

Top 200 drugs

MBBS (UWA) CCPU Emergency Medicine Advanced Trainee based in Melbourne, Australia. Co-author of the LITFL ECG Library. Likes Ultrasound, Echo, ECGs, and anything and everything with caffeine. Part of the 2021 ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator Programme | @rob_buttner | ECG Library |

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