Pharm 101: Prilocaine

Class

Local anaesthetic


Pharmacodynamics
  • Amide local anaesthetic
  • See Pharm 101: Bupivacaine for information regarding mechanism of action of amide local anaesthetics

Pharmacokinetics
  • Distribution half-life 5 minutes
  • Elimination half-life 1.5 hours
  • Volume od distribution 261L
  • Clearance 2.84L/min
    • Highest clearance of amino-amide anaesthetics, reducing risk of systemic toxicity

Clinical uses
  • IV for peripheral nerve block e.g. bier’s block

Adverse effects
  • CNS toxicity:
    • Sedation
    • Visual and auditory hallucinations
    • Tongue/mouth numbness, metallic taste
    • Seizure
    • Respiratory depression
  • Cardiac toxicity (high volume blocks):
    • Arrhythmias
    • Cardiovascular collapse
    • Hypotension and arrest
  • Local toxicity: trauma, neurotoxicity
  • Methaemoglobinaemia

Further reading

References

Pharm 101 700

Pharmacology 101

Top 200 drugs

MBBS (UWA) CCPU (RCE, Biliary, DVT, E-FAST, AAA) Emergency Medicine Advanced Trainee in Melbourne, Australia. Special interests in diagnostic and procedural ultrasound, medical education, and ECG interpretation. Editor-in-chief of the LITFL ECG Library. Twitter: @rob_buttner

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