Alix Joffroy (1844 - 1908) was a French neurologist and psychiatrist. Eponymously affiliated with Joffroy sign in Graves ophthalmopathy
Joffroy sign (1893): absent wrinkling of the forehead when a patient in patients Graves Ophthalmopathy looks up with the head bent forwards.
Exophthalmos is abnormal protrusion of the eyeball or eyeballs. Differential diagnosis
Albrecht von Gräfe (1828 – 1870) was a German ophthalmologist. Founder of scientific ophthalmology, Graefe sign (1864)
Dalrymple sign: Widened palpebral tissue (lid retraction) or lid spasm seen in thyrotoxicosis (Graves disease) by John Dalrymple (1852)
von Graefe sign (lid lag sign): Failure of the upper lid to follow a downward movement of the eyeball when the patient changes his or her vision from looking up to looking down. Typically associated with hyperthyroidism and exophthalmos
Time to review the descriptions and eponymythology of the forgotten signs associated with Graves orbitopathy - the signs of Dalrymple, Stellwag, von Graefe, Möbius and Joffroy...
Möbius sign: Diagnostic test in patients with Morbus Basedow (Graves disease) - the inability to maintain ocular convergence in the presence of hyperthyroidism.