Autoimmune Markers


  • numerous autoimmune markers will overlap between conditions and varying specificity and sensitivity


Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

  • low specificity -> SLE and other autoimmune diseases

Rheumatoid factor

  • IgG vs IgM
  • low specificity
    • -> RA
    • -> mixed cryoglobulinaemia
    • -> subacute bacterial endocarditis
    • -> any chronic antigenic stimulation


  • low specificity
    • -> antiphospholipid syndrome
    • -> SLE
    • -> other autoimmune diseases
    • -> viral illnesses

Anti-DNA and Anti-Smith

  • -> SLE

Anti-Ro and La

  • -> SLE with congenital heart block
  • -> Sjögren syndrome


  • -> limited cutaneous scleroderma (CREST)

Anti-ribonuclear protein

  • -> SLE
  • -> mixed connective tissue disorder
  • -> undifferentiated connective tissue disorder

C3 and C4

  • -> falls in: SLE, autoimmune chronic active hepatitis
  • -> rise in: biliary obstruction, nephrotic syndrome, acute phase response

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)

Antiglomerular Basement Membrane

  • -> Goodpasture syndrome

Anti-smooth muscle

  • -> autoimmune disease
  • -> chronic active hepatitis
  • -> EBV


  • -> primary biliary cirrhosis
  • -> chronic active hepatitis
  • -> idiopathic cirrhosis

Anti-gliadin, Anti-endomseal, Anti-transglutaminase

  • -> Coeliac disease

Anti-intrinsic factor and Parietal Cell Antibody

  • -> Pernicious anaemia

Anti-TSH receptor

  • -> autoimmune thyroid disease (Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis)

Anti-acetylcholine receptor protein and Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody

  • -> MG

CCC 700 6

Critical Care


Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.

After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.

He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE.  He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of litfl.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.

His one great achievement is being the father of three amazing children.

On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.

| INTENSIVE | RAGE | Resuscitology | SMACC

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