Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis; rare channelopathy; muscle weakness/paralysis with a matching fall in K+ levels; starts in adolescence; weakness may be mild -> full body paralysis
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis: rare; small proportion of chronic ethanol abusers; relatively benign if patients given IV dextrose and fluids; unclear aetiology
Oxidative stress is refers an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and the protection of antioxidants, due to the accumulation of free radicals and/or the inability of antioxidants to counter their accumulation or effects.
Chloride is the major anion in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and is the second most important contributor to plasma tonicity. The possibility of harm from hyperchloraemia, particularly in the context of fluid resuscitation with chloride-rich solutions such as normal saline, is an area of intense research interest
OVERVIEW Hyperammonaemia is easily forgotten as a potential cause of metabolic encephalopathy Ammonia is produced by the hepatic metabolism of amino acids and is primarily degraded via the urea cycle In the absence of obvious liver dysfunction or a drug cause, metabolic errors should be considered — some metabolic errors can go undiagnosed until adulthood […]