Cachexia refers to weight loss and skeletal muscle wasting due to illness where the body does not reduce catabolism (unlike the adaptive reduction in protein metabolism that occurs in starvation). Mechanisms not clearly understood
Enteral Nutrition vs Parenteral Nutrition: controversial issue; at present best recommendations are to optimize oral/enteral nutrition, avoid forced starvation if at all possible, and judiciously use supplemental parenteral nutrition.
Immunonutrition involves feeding (enteral or TPN) enriched with various nutrients (arginine, glutamine, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides and anti-oxidants: copper, selenium, zinc, vitamins B, C and E) to improve immune responses and modulate inflammatory responses
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