Category nutrition
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Gastric Residual Volume

Gastric residual volume is the amount aspirated from the stomach following administration of enteral feed. An aspirated amount of ≤ 500ml 6 hourly is safe and indicates that the GIT is functioning
CCC Critical Care compendium 340


Cachexia refers to weight loss and skeletal muscle wasting due to illness where the body does not reduce catabolism (unlike the adaptive reduction in protein metabolism that occurs in starvation). Mechanisms not clearly understood
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Enteral Nutrition vs Parenteral Nutrition

Enteral Nutrition vs Parenteral Nutrition: controversial issue; at present best recommendations are to optimize oral/enteral nutrition, avoid forced starvation if at all possible, and judiciously use supplemental parenteral nutrition.
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Folate Deficiency

Folate Deficiency: 500-20,000 mcg stored in body; required 50-100mcg/day; required for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis (purine, thymidine and amino acid synthesis)
CCC Critical Care compendium 340


Immunonutrition involves feeding (enteral or TPN) enriched with various nutrients (arginine, glutamine, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides and anti-oxidants: copper, selenium, zinc, vitamins B, C and E) to improve immune responses and modulate inflammatory responses
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Intolerance to Enteral Nutrition

OVERVIEW Intolerance to enteral nutrition is characterised by excessive aspirates (>500mL q6h),vomiting, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhoea CAUSES Patient GORD hiatus hernia gastroparesis/ileus pseudo-obstruction retroperitoneal haematoma/oedema bowel injury bowel ischaemia shock sepsis pancreatitis bowel obstruction hyperglycemia hypoxia / ischemia trauma…