Adrenal insufficiency: primary, secondary and tertiary + acute/chronic
Glucose Control Literature Summaries
Stress Induced Hyperglycaemia (SIH) is transient hyperglycaemia associated with acute illness resolves with resolution of the underlying critical illness
Karl Adolph von Basedow (1799 – 1854) was a German general practitioner, surgeon and obstetrician. Described Basedow (Graves) disease 1840
John Dalrymple (1803-1852) English surgeon and ophthalmologist. Dalrymple sign (1952) relating to Graves disease; dissection and histology of first case of multiple myeloma with Bence Jones (1846)
Karl Stellwag von Carion (1823 – 1904) was an Austrian ophthalmologist. Eponym: Stellwag Sign (1869) in Graves orbitopathy
Dalrymple sign: Widened palpebral tissue (lid retraction) or lid spasm seen in thyrotoxicosis (Graves disease) by John Dalrymple (1852)
von Graefe sign (lid lag sign): Failure of the upper lid to follow a downward movement of the eyeball when the patient changes his or her vision from looking up to looking down. Typically associated with hyperthyroidism and exophthalmos
Stellwag Sign: decreased, incomplete or infrequent blinking in patients with exophthalmic goitre (Graves-Basedow disease). Stellwag sign may also seen in progressive supranuclear palsy, and in dysthyroid eye disease
Pendred syndrome: autosomal recessive genetic disorder (chromosome 7q31), characterized by congenital sensorineural deafness and goitre.
Vaughan Pendred (1869–1946) was an English GP. Pendred first described the syndrome of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with goitre (Pendred syndrome)
Time to review the descriptions and eponymythology of the forgotten signs associated with Graves orbitopathy - the signs of Dalrymple, Stellwag, von Graefe, Möbius and Joffroy...