Sir Dominic John Corrigan, 1st Baronet (1802 – 1880) was an Irish physician and politician.
He is immortalised in numerous medical eponyms, including Corrigan pulse (1832), Corrigan disease (1832), Corrian cirrhosis (1836), Corrigan button (1846), and Corrgian sign (1854), among multiple other published works on famine and cardiorespiratory disease.
Sir Corrigan was appointed Physician-in-Ordinary to Queen Victoria in Ireland (1847), Vice-Chancellor of Queen’s University in Ireland, and president of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, Royal Zoological Society Dublin, Dublin Pathological Society, and the Pharmaceutical Society of Dublin.
- Born on December 1, 1802, in Dublin, Ireland
- 1820 – Commenced medical studies at the School of Physic (Trinity College), University of Dublin
- 1825 – M.D. from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland
- 1826-1830 Medical assistant in the dispensary on Meath-street, Dublin; the Fever Hospital and House of Recovery, Cork-Street, and Jervis Street Charitable Infirmary, Dublin
- 1831 – Consulting physician appointment at Maynooth Catholic College
- 1833 – Lecturer in Medicine at Carmichael School
- 1838 – Co-founded the Pathological Society of Dublin along with Smith, Colles, Graves, and Stokes
- 1840-1856 Consulting physician to the House of Industry Hospitals (Whiteworth and Harwicke Hospitals) in Dublin
- 1843 – MRCS (Eng) diploma (surgery)
- 1847-1880 Honorary Physician-in-Ordinary appointment to the Queen of Ireland
- 1849 – Awarded M.D. honoris causa degree by the University of Dublin
- 1856 – Fellow of the King and Queen’s College of Physicians of Ireland
- 1859 – Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland
- 1859-1864 President of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland
- 1866 – Baronet of Cappagh and Inniscorrig, Dublin
- 1870 – Physician-in-ordinary to Queen Victoria in Ireland
- 1870-1874 Elected to the Liberal party of the Dublin Parliament
- 1871 – Vice-Chancellor of Queen’s University, Ireland
- 1875 – President of the Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland
- Died on February 1, 1880 in Dublin, Ireland
Corrigan sign I (1829)
Corrigan sign refers to the visible pulsation of the arteries of the upper extremity in patients with an aneurysm of the ascending aorta or aortic arch.
Corrigan identified the “visible pulsation of the arteries of the upper extremities” in three cases of aneurysm of the ascending aorta or its arch.
the first remarkable appearance that caught the eye, was a singular pulsation of all the arterial trunks of the upper part of the body. As his arms hung by his side, the whole tract of the brachial and carotid arteries was thrown out in strong relief, at each impulse of the heart, as if the vessels, from having been previously comparatively empty, had become suddenly filled.
Laennec reckons aneurism of the aorta one of three thoracic affections, which still remain in obscurity, notwithstanding the application of the stethoscope.
It is singular, that among the symptoms given by Corvisart and Laennec, there is no mention of the visible pulsation of the arteries of the upper extremities, so remarkable in this case. Three cases of aneurism of the ascending aorta, or its arch, are in my recollection; in each of them this was a prominent symptomCorrigan 1829
Corrigan Pulse (1832)
In 1832, Corrigan described the exaggerated visible pulsations of head and upper extremity arteries, in addition to ‘Bruit de soufflet’ and ‘frémissement’ as the three physical signs of aortic regurgitation in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal. He also briefly mentioned the ‘full pulse’ of aortic regurgitation in passing.
- He observed the visible abrupt distension and collapse of the carotid, head, and superior extremity arteries in patients with permanent patency of the aortic mouth. Sir Corrigan explained that in aortic valve insufficiency, the ascending aorta and branching arteries lessen in diameter as blood regurgitates back into the left ventricle, which then suddenly and greatly dilates with ventricular contraction.
- Bruit de soufflet (bellows murmur) was described by Corrigan as a pathognomonic sign best heard at the heart base and the great vessels. The accompanying frémissement was described as a palpated thrill in the carotid and subclavian arteries.
Sir Thomas Watson (1792 – 1882) likened the palpable pulse of AR to a Victorian toy called a water-hammer (lecture 1837; published 1842); which imparted to a child’s hands the same sensation of a collapsing pulse of aortic regurgitation [Lecture 60 (1842: 647)]
Corrigan disease (1832)
Aortic regurgitation. First use of the term Maladie de Corrigan for aortic regurgitation [Gazette des hôpitaux 1839:466]
C’est sûr tous ces signes reunis qUe nous avons basé notre diagnostic, et nous croyons pouvoir affiriner que cet homme est atteint de la maladie de Côrrigan, c’est à-diré’ de l’insuffisance des valvules sigmoïdes sans rétrécissement de l’orifice aortique.
It is certain that all these signs are united, that we have based our diagnosis, and we believe we can affirm that this man is suffering from Corrigan’s disease, that is, the insufficiency of the aortic valves without narrowing of the aortic orifice
Corrigan button (1846)
A ‘counter-irritant’ form of treatment (for pretty much anything…) which Corrigan termed ‘Firing’ or scorching, rather, as distinguished from actual cauterization.
The iron used is portable, consisting of a thick iron-wire shank, about two inches long, inserted in a small wooden handle, having on its extremity, which is slightly curved, a disc or button of iron, a quarter of an inch thick, and half an inch in diameter, the whole instrument being six inches in length. The face of the disc for application is flat. This, trifling as it may seem, must be attended to. In the French cauterizing irons, the buttons for cauterizing are spherical, and the consequence is, that they must either be pressed long and deeply into the skin, to bring them in contact with an extent of surface equal to their diameter, or they can be made only to touch at a single point…
My friend Dr. Mitchell, Master of the Victoria Lying-in Hospital, consulted me some months since for a severe attack of lumbago. I applied the firing, and he was in one minute quite free from pain. He has since used it himself extensively in practice, and, I believe, he will shortly publish the results of his observations.Lancet 1846; 47(1183): 497
Corrigan sign II (1854)
Purple-red line on the gum, pathogonomic of chronic copper poisoning. Corrigan reported on 7 cases of slow copper poisoning in 1854.
The suddenly dangerous, and occasionally fatal effects which have resulted from the use of food cooked in copper vessels imperfectly cleaned, or still more often from incautiously allowing food, after having been cooked, to remain in copper vessels, are now so well known, and so much dreaded, that cases of copper-poisoning from these causes are of very rare occurrence.
In all the cases of copper-poisoning which have come under my notice, there was exhibited a very peculiar feature, which does not appear to have been previously noticed, viz., an edging of rich purple on the margin of the gums of the incisor, canine, and bicuspid teeth of both jaws. This purple colouring of the margin of the gums coincides in situation precisely with the colouring produced by lead, but the tint of colour is so different as at once to decide whether it has proceeded from copper or from lead ; for while the colour produced by lead is of a pure blue, that from copper is a well marked purple, and even sometimes a reddish purple.Corrigan; Slow Copper-Poisoning, 1854
- Corrigan respiration – Frequent shallow respiration associated with fever
- Corrigan Hammer
- Corrigan cirrhosis (1836) – also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome, an acute diffuse idiopathic interstitial pulmonary fibrosis of unknown aetiology [Cirrhosis of the lung, Corrigan 1838]
- Corrigan DJ. Aneurism of the Aorta; singular pulsation of the arteries – necessity of the employment of the stethoscope. Lancet 1829; 11(284) :586-590 [Corrigan sign I]
- Corrigan DJ. On permanent patency of the mouth of the aorta, or inadequacy of the aortic valves. The Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, 1832; 37: 225-245. [Corrigan Pulse]
- Corrigan DJ. Le bruit de souffle. The Dublin Journal of Medical Science, 1836; 8: 202-205
- Corrigan DJ. On aortitis as one of the causes of angina pectoris. The Dublin Journal of Medical Science, 1837; 12: 243-254
- Corrigan DJ. On cirrhosis of the lung. The Dublin Journal of Medical Science, 1838, 13: 266-286. [Corrigan cirrhosis, Hamman-Rich syndrome]
- Corrigan DJ. Paralysis from arsenic; treatment by a new form of counter-irritation, ‘FIRING’. Dublin hospital gazette. 1846; 2: 209 [Lancet 1846; 47(1183): 497] [Corrigan button]
- Corrigan DJ. Cases of slow copper-poisoning with observations. Dublin hospital gazette. 1854; 1: 229-232 [Corrigan sign]
- Corrigan DJ. Case of compound poisoning by atropia and opium, stimulation by firing recovery. 1854; 1: 325-327
- Dawes SL. Little biographies and the eponymic diseases: XXVII. Dominic John Corrigan. Albany Medical Annals. 1908; 29: 363–365.
- Sir Dominic John Corrigan. Medical Classics. 1937; 1(6): 672-727
- Agnew RAL. The achievement of Dominic John Corrigan. Med Hist. 1965; 9(3): 230–240.
- O’Brien ET. The man behind the eponym: Sir Dominic John Corrigan (1802-1880). N Engl J Med. 1981 Feb 5; 304(6): 365-6
- O’Brien E. Conscience and conflict. A biography of Sir Dominic Corrigan. Dublin : Glendale Press; 1983.
- O’Brien E. Sir Dominic Corrigan (1802-1880): doctor and parliamentarian. Studies. 1984;73(290):146-58
- Stone J. Sir Dominic John Corrigan. Clin Cardiol. 1986;9(8):403-406
- Berry D. History of medicine: Sir Dominic Corrigan, MD. Circulation. 2006 Sep 5;114(10):f140.
- Bibliography. Corrigan, Dominic Sir 1802-1880. WorldCat Identities
- Trousseau A. Revue bibliographique. Gazette des hôpitaux civils et militaires. 1839; 117(1:II): 465-466 [Introduced the term Maladie de Corrigan for aortic regurgitation]
- McCormack J. Cases, illustrating the success of ‘FIRING’. Lancet 1846; 48(1214): 612-613 [Corrigan button]
- Williamson RT. Sir Dominic Corrigan. Annals of Medical History. 1925; I(VII): 354-361
- Dock GI. Dominic John Corrigan: his place in the development of our knowledge of cardiac disease. II. The water-hammer pulse. Annals of Medical History. 1934; III (VI): 381–395.
- Palfrey F.W. Auscultation of the Corrigan or water-hammer pulse. N Engl J Med. 1952;247(20):771-2.
- Dickey RA. The Corrigan Sign JAMA. 1969; 209(3):419-419.
- Zhang G. Eponyms in Aortic Regurgitation. LITFL 2019
the person behind the name
Doctor in Australia. Keen interest in internal medicine, medical education, and medical history.
Associate Professor Curtin Medical School, Curtin University. Emergency physician MA (Oxon) MBChB (Edin) FACEM FFSEM Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. Passion for rugby; medical history; medical education; and asynchronous learning #FOAMed evangelist. Co-founder and CTO of Life in the Fast lane | Eponyms | Books | Twitter |