Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud

Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1796 – 1881) was a French physician.

Bouillaud was active in various fields of medicine including localization of the language function; multiple publications on cardiology; and publications on hermaphroditism, cholera, encephalitis, cancer, and various forms of fever.

Bouillaud pointed out the relevance of the stethoscope relevance for examining the heart (1819) and differentiated different types of valvular heart diseases through auscultation. He identified the bruit de diable (venous hum over right internal jugular vein); bruit de rappel; and faux pas du coeur (weak heart beat and absent peripheral pulse). He coined the terms endocardium (endocarde) and endocarditis (endocardite)


Biography


Medical Eponyms

Bouillaud disease (1835) (*aka acute rheumatic carditis)

Bouillaud Law of Coincidence (1836)

First described in 1836, translated to English in 1837 and expanded in 1840. Bouillaud determined that in the great majority of cases of acute generalized febrile articular rheumatism, there exists a variable degree of rheumatism of the fibrous tissue of the heart. This coincidence is the rule and the noncoincidence is the exception.

Determination of the Law of Coincidence of Endocarditis and Pericarditis, or of Inflammation of the Internal and External Sero-fibrous Tissues of the Heart with Acute Articular Rheumatism

Bouillaud 1836: 12
Bouillaud sign (1846)

Depression or persistent retraction of the precordium caused by adhesive pericarditis

Original
English

Chez six ou sept sujets, nous avons annoncé l’existence d’une adhérence intime et générale du péricarde aux signes suivants:

1) Dépression évidente de la région précordiale, dépression qui est l’analogue de celle qu’on observe dans un des côtés de la poitrine à la suite d une pleuresie également terminée par adhésion. Cette sorte de rétrécissement de la région précordiale me parait aujourd’hui un signe d’une haute importante.

2) La main et l’oreille appliquées sur la région précordiale font reconnaître que le cœur ne se ment pas, ne joue pas aussi librement qu’à l’état normal dans la cavité qui le contient; ses battements sont en quelque sorte embarrassés bridés, et la pointe ne frappe plus la poitrine par un coup net et bien détaché.

Bouillaud [Tome I: 415-416]

In six or seven subjects, we have announced the existence of an intimate and general adhesion of the pericardium to the following signs:

1) evident depression of the precordial region, depression which is analogous to that observed in one of the sides of the chest as a result of pleurisy also terminated by adhesion. This sort of narrowing of the precordial region seems to me today a sign of high importance.

2) If the hand and ear are applied to the precordial region, one recognizes that the heart does not move as freely as it does in the normal state; its beats are somewhat impeded and the apex of the heart does not strike the chest wall as usual with a sharp and distinctive force.

Bouillaud [Tome I: 415-416]

Bouillaud references Dr James Sanders, and like Hope and Laennec before him, had been unable to observe the sign in adherent pericarditis

Original
English

M. le docteur Sander(s) a donné comme signe de l’adhérence du péricarde au cœur un signe que je n’ai pas eu l’occasion de constater: “un mouvement perpétuel d’une très forte ondulation se montrant plus bas que celle que l’on sent naturellement dans la région du cœur”

Bouillaud. Traité de nosographie médicale. 1846; I: 416

Doctor Sander(s) gave as a sign of the adherence of the pericardium to the heart a sign that I have not had the opportunity to observe: “a perpetual movement of a very strong undulation showing itself lower than the one we naturally feel in the region of the heart

[Tome I: 416]


Key Medical Attributions

Cardiology:
  • Bouillaud pointed out the relevance of the stethoscope relevance for examining the heart (1819) and differentiated different types of valvular heart diseases through auscultation. He identified the bruit de diable (venous hum over right internal jugular vein); bruit de rappel; and faux pas du coeur (weak heart beat and absent peripheral pulse)
  • Described in detail various congenital cardiac diseases that he associated with either developmental arrest or foetal endocarditis
  • Identified the tympanic sound heard on percussing the chest above the level of a pleural effusion (later reported by and eponymously named Škodaic ressonance)
Neurology
  • 1827: Bouillaud observed that patients with cerebellar lesions had difficulty with posture and stance

Controversies


Major Publications


References


eponymictionary CTA

eponym

the person behind the name

Emergency physician MA (Oxon) MBChB (Edin) FACEM FFSEM with a passion for rugby; medical history; medical education; and informatics. Asynchronous learning #FOAMed evangelist. Co-founder and CTO of Life in the Fast lane | Eponyms | Books | vocortex |

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