Osgood–Schlatter disease (OSD) is an osteochondrosis or traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle. OSD is common during the early adolescent growth spurt between 10 and 15 years of age, particularly in children who participate in sports that involve running and jumping. It is more common in males and may affect both knees.
Most cases resolve with supportive treatment including rest, ice and NSAID medications. Physiotherapy includes stretching and strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring muscles.
1878 – Odilon Marc Lannelongue (1840 – 1911) discussed ‘les ostéites apophysaires pendant la croissance‘. This in depth review outlines the condition it’s predominance in adolescence; differentation from TB; and the long term benign nature of tibial tuberosity apophysitis
Le changement d’état des apophyses, leur transformation lente ou rapide, réclame pour se produire le concours d’une irritation physiologique active, poursuivant son but de substitution jusqu’à son dernier terme: l’ossification complète après croissance achevée. Sous cette influence, et pendant toute sa durée, se trouve constituée une véritable prédispositon, une sorte d’imminence morbide. Dès ce moment les apophyses peuvent subir primitivement les mêmes atteintes que celles qui frappent ailleurs le tissuosseux.Lannelongue 1878
Much more common are the enlargements of the tubercle of the tibia which are often seen in young people much given to athletic games. They complain of aching pain at and about the part, especially during and after active exercise, and the tubercle may be felt enlarged and is often too warm. The pain often continues, more or less, for many months, and there may be enlargement of the bursa under the ligamentum patellae, and the tubercle may remain too prominent; but common as are these cases, especially in our public schools, I have never known grave mischief ensue in any of them, and they get well of themselves. They may represent one of the least degrees of periostitis due to strain; the increase of the prominence of the bone is only just beyond that which may be deemed the normal limit for the attachment of vigorous muscles.Paget 1891
1903 The American orthopedist, Robert Bayley Osgood (1873–1956), wrote about bone changes on the tibial tubercle with a review of 10 patients in his time as a roetgenologist at Boston Children’s Hospital. “Lesions of the tibial tubercle occurring during adolescence” published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal
It is possible, however, to have a partial separation of the tubercle and the interference with normal function be so slight that the condition is often unrecognized and the diagnosis made of a bursitis or a periostitis, or even a joint fringe (see fig 5, 6). The x-ray evidence of this is apparently indisputable and the clinical picture absolutely consistent with the true condition.
Osgood advised conservative management and that:
…complete immobilisation for 6-8 weeks uniformally brought about a return to practically normal function…even though the fragment is not completely restored to it’s normal position.Osgood 1903
1903 Swiss surgeon Carl B. Schlatter (1864 – 1934) published “Verletzungen des schnabelförmigen Forsatzes der oberen Tibiaepiphyse” [Injuries of the beak-shaped appendage of the upper tibial epiphysis] and the condition was later termed ‘Schlatterschen Krankheit‘. Schaltter observed 7 patients with separation of the anterior rostrate (beak) process from the upper tibia noting that
…these injuries represent a clinically sharply delineated profile of the disease whose symptom complex is in most cases simple and easy to diagnose without the use of radiographsSchlatter 1903
- Odilon Marc Lannelongue (1840-1911)
- Sir James Paget (1814–1899)
- Carl B. Schlatter (1864 – 1934)
- Robert Bayley Osgood (1873–1956)
- Apophysitis of the tibial tubercle
- Osteochondrosis of the tibial tuberosity
- Lannelongue’s disease
- Lannelongue-Osgood-Schlatter disease
- Schlatterschen Krankheit; Schlatter’s sjukdom; Schlatter’s disease.
- Lannelongue OM. Note sur les ostéites apophysaires pendant la croissance. Bulletins et mémoires de la société de chirurgie de paris. 1878. Tome IV pp162 and pp276
- Paget J. Studies of Old Case-books. Longmans, Green. 1891
- Osgood RB. Lesions of the tibial tubercle occurring during adolescence. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 1903; 148: 114-117
- Schlatter C. Verletzungen des schnabelförmigen Forsatzes der oberen Tibiaepiphyse. Beitrage zur klinischen Chirurgie, 1903; 38: 874-87
- Haglund P. Concerning some rare but important surgical injuries brought on by violent exercise. [Schlatter’s disease.] Lancet 1908; 172(4427): 12-15
- Kienbttck R. Ueber Osteochondritis an der Tuberositas tibiae und die sogeiiannte Osgood-Schlaltersche Erkrankung. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin. 1910; 15: 135-139.
- Tubby AA. Orthopaedic surgery: the Osgood-Schlatter disease. The Practitioner. 1912; 89: 56-60
- Tibia (Anterior apophysis of Thickening of) [Osgood- Schlatter disease, 1903] Index-catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General’s Office, United States Army. Authors and subjects 1913; II(18): 252 (Series 2, Volume 18)
- Nowinski RJ, Mehlman CT. Hyphenated history: Osgood-Schlatter disease. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 1998; 27(8): 584-5.
- Ladenhauf HN, Seitlinger G, Green DW. Osgood-Schlatter Disease: A 2020 Update of a Common Knee Condition in Children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2020 Feb;32(1):107-112.
the names behind the name