A 5 year-old boy is 'off his face' after drinking what looked like a nice bottle of cordial. It was actually radiator coolant. You are called for advice.
OVERVIEW Anion Gap = Na+ – (Cl- + HCO3-) The Anion Gap (AG) is a derived variable primarily used for the evaluation of metabolic acidosis to determine the presence of unmeasured anions The normal anion gap depends on serum phosphate…
Metformin use is associated with lactic acidosis, but it remains controversial as a disease entity
a metabolic acidosis is an abnormal primary process or condition leading to an increase in fixed acids in the blood -> resulting in a fall in arterial plasma bicarbonate
A metabolic acidosis is a process which, if uncorrected, would lead to an acidaemia. It is usually associated with a low bicarbonate concentration (or total CO2), but an acidosis may be masked by a co-existing metabolic alkalosis.
Ketoacidosis is a high anion gap metabolic acidosis due to an excessive blood concentration of ketone bodies (keto-anions).
Pyroglutamic acidosis is a rare cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). When glutathione levels are low, the activity of γ-glutamyl cyclotransferase is increased, resulting in pyroglutamic acid accumulation in glutathione-depleted states
D-Lactic acidosis aka D-lactic encephalopathy. Rare cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA), typically occurs in patients short bowel syndrome or following jejuno-ileal bypass surgery
A 20 year old male presents with 3 days of lethargy and generalised malaise. He is confused and looks very unwell. Can sort out this metabolic muddle?
You are asked to review a 73 year old lady who is in hospital for treatment of septic arthritis affecting a prosthetic right hip joint inserted 5 years earlier.
An 87 year old female presented with a subarachnoid haemorrhage. GCS 8/15. Can you figure out her acid-base disturbance?