Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is classically bleeding from above the ligament of Trietz (the suspensory muscle of duodenum that connects to the diaphragm), can is characterised by haemetemesis and melaena.
- Chronic peptic ulcer: duodenal ulcer (40%), gastric ulcer
- Acute peptic ulcer (erosions)
- Mallory-Weiss syndrome (tear at the gastro-oesophageal junction)
- Oesophageal and/or gastric varices
- Erosive or ulcerative oesophagitis
- Gastric carcinoma, polyp, other tumours
- Dieulafoy lesion (single defect that involves an ectatic submucosal artery)
- Watermelon stomach (antral vascular ectasias)
- Aortoenteric fistula (usually aortoduodenal and after aortic surgery) Don’t miss this!
- Vascular anomalies
— blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome
— hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
— CRST syndrome
- Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Ménétrier disease
- Bleeding diathesis
- Pseudohaematemesis (nasopharyngeal origin)
Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.
After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.
He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE. He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of litfl.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.
His one great achievement is being the father of three amazing children.
On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.