OVERVIEW can use bubble testing to ID calculate gradients if L->R shunt reverses due to pulmonary hypertension it is Eisenmenger syndrome Echo may not detect extra-cardiac shunts ASD patent foramen ovale (30% incidence in general population) ostium secundum ostium primum…
Transoesophageal Echocardiography: allow real time anatomical and physiological assessment of cardiac status; probes (single, bi, omiplane and epivascular)
Mitral Stenosis Echocardiography
Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) Increasing useful bedside test with increasing role in critical care; position marker on right
Pulmonary hypertension is present when mean pulmonary artery pressure exceeds 25 mm Hg at rest or 30 mm Hg with exercise.
Right Ventricular Function and Haemodynamic Assessment Echocardiography
Thyroid Function Tests and basic interpretation
15% of the population are Rhesus negative; Rh D immunoglobulin is administered to non-sensitised Rh D negative women to prevent the development of Rh D antibodies and in so doing prevent Rh D induced haemolytic disease of the newborn.
Bilirubin and Jaundice. Investigations and analysis of conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, urobilinogen and bilirubinuria
A pleural effusion is a collection of fluid in the pleural space. Review of basic Pleural Fluid Analysis
The CT head scan is a computer-generated series of images from multiple X-rays taken at different levels. Fine X-ray beams passed through the subject are absorbed to different degrees by different tissues and the transmitted radiation is measured by a scanning device.
Oesophageal Doppler Cardiac Output Monitor; non-invasive cardiac output monitor