Category Clinical Research
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Phases of Clinical Research

Phases of clinical research are the steps taken to gather evidence to determine whether a novel intervention or treatment is safe and effective for clinical use
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

How to analyse a clinical trial

Clinicians must be able to critically appraise clinical trials to determine their internal validity. Trials should adhere to the CONSORT statement (CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials)
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Fragility Index

OVERVIEW The Fragility Index is the minimum number of patients whose status would have to change from a nonevent to an event that is required to turn a statistically significant result to a non-significant result The smaller the Fragility Index,…
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Confounding and Confounders

Confounding involves error in the interpretation of what may be an accurate measurement by attributing it to the wrong cause. A confounder is a factor that is prognostically linked to the outcome of interest and is unevenly distributed between the study groups
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Incidence and prevalence

Incidence = number of individuals who develop a disease in a given period of time. Prevalence = the current number of cases in a given population
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Odds ratio

An odds ratio (OR) is a measure of association between an exposure and an outcome. The OR represents the odds that an outcome will occur given a particular exposure, compared to the odds of the outcome occurring in the absence of that exposure.
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Power and Sample Size

It is unethical and a waste of time and resources to embark on a study when there is a high chance of a false negative result (Type II error). The commonest cause of this is having a sample size that is too small