OVERVIEW The Fragility Index is the minimum number of patients whose status would have to change from a nonevent to an event that is required to turn a statistically significant result to a non-significant result The smaller the Fragility Index,…
Confounding involves error in the interpretation of what may be an accurate measurement by attributing it to the wrong cause. A confounder is a factor that is prognostically linked to the outcome of interest and is unevenly distributed between the study groups
An odds ratio (OR) is a measure of association between an exposure and an outcome. The OR represents the odds that an outcome will occur given a particular exposure, compared to the odds of the outcome occurring in the absence of that exposure.
It is unethical and a waste of time and resources to embark on a study when there is a high chance of a false negative result (Type II error). The commonest cause of this is having a sample size that is too small
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