Category Clinical Research
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Publication Practices Distort Science

Scientific information is an economic commodity, and that scientific journals are a medium for its dissemination and exchange. As such it is subject to economic factors that affect the value of scientific information and how it is exchanged.
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Retrospective Studies and Chart Reviews

Retrospective studies are designed to analyse pre-existing data, and are subject to numerous biases as a result. Types of retrospective studies include: case series; retrospective cohort studies; case-control studies
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Standardised Mortality Ratio

Standardised Mortality Ratio SMR is the ratio of the observed or actual hospital mortality and the predicted hospital mortality for a specified time period.
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Data Distributions

Data can be described by different distributions, which has implications for how the data is analysed using statistical methods
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Fisher’s Exact Test

Fisher's Exact Test is to compare categorical data; more complicated to perform than the Chi square test; only generally applicable in 2 x 2 contingency table
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Intention to treat analysis

Intention to treat (ITT) analysis means all patients who were enrolled and randomly allocated to treatment are included in the analysis and are analysed in the groups to which they were randomized
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

Meta-analysis is a tool for quantitative systematic review of observational studies and controlled trials that weights available evidence based on the numbers of patients included, the effect size, and often statistical tests of agreement with other trials
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Measures of Variability

Measures if variability describe the average dispersion of data around a mean; most common = range, standard deviation and the standard error of the mean
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Phases of Clinical Research

Phases of clinical research are the steps taken to gather evidence to determine whether a novel intervention or treatment is safe and effective for clinical use
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

How to analyse a clinical trial

Clinicians must be able to critically appraise clinical trials to determine their internal validity. Trials should adhere to the CONSORT statement (CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials)