Category Toxicology Library


Competitively blocks the formation of toxic metabolites in toxic alcohol ingestion by having a higher affinity for the enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH). Its chief application is in methanol and ethylene glycol ingestion, although it has been used with other toxic alcohols. Ethanol is now regarded as the second choice antidote in those countries with access to the specific ADH blocker, fomepizole.


Benztropine is the first line agent for the treatment of acute dystonic reactions. See how to administer and dose this drug.


Desferrioxamine is an effective iron chelator that is used to treat systemic iron toxicity or prevent the development of systemic toxicity following acute iron overdose. It should ideally be given before iron moves intracellularly and systemic toxicity develops.


This rarely used intramuscular chelator is the most toxic of all chelating agents, and is reserved for the treatment of severe poisoning from lead, inorganic arsenic and mercury, if possible EDTA or Succimer should be used instead.

Dicobalt edetate

Dicobalt edetate was developed as a cyanide antidote based on the known ability of cobalt to form stable complexes with cyanide.
Toxicology-Conundrum-340 256

Ethylene glycol inebriation

A 5 year-old boy is 'off his face' after drinking what looked like a nice bottle of cordial. It was actually radiator coolant. You are called for advice.

Jack Barnes

John (Jack) Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was an Australian medical practitioner and toxinologist. 1964 the first specimens of the small stinger Carukia barnesi (Irukandji)
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Spider envenoming

Spider envenoming: In Australia the only two spiders of real importance = Funnel-web and the Red-Back; only these two can cause death or severe systemic illness
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Ciguatera Poisoning

Ciguatera Poisoning: A bizarre poisoning syndrome with acute and sometimes severe neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms caused by eating tropical reef fish that have accumulated ciguatoxin from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus; most common cause of fish poisoning worldwide.
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Scombroid Poisoning

Scombroid poisoning occurs after the ingestion of fish with high histamine levels due to improper processing or storage. One of the most common causes of morbidity associated with fish intake
CCC Critical Care compendium 340

Tick Paralysis

Tick paralysis is a rare life-threatening disorder caused by envenoming from ixodid tick bites. Can cause respiratory paralysis
amazonian catfish toothpick fish candiru 340

The Candirú

Having a toothpick fish (the Candiru) take a detour up your urethra doesn't really bear thinking about. Apparently the worst thing that can happen to a parasite is to end up inside the wrong host...