Heart Sound Abnormalities



  • MV or TV open long -> shuts forcefully
  • MS
  • increased HR
  • short AV conduction


  • first degree HB
  • LBBB
  • MR


  • RBBB



  • HT
  • AS
  • PHT


  • AS
  • AR


  • increased normal splitting (wider on inspiration): RBBB, PS, VSD, MR
  • fixed splitting (no respiratory variation): ASD
  • reversed splitting (in expiration): LBBB, AS, coarctation, PDA


  • = low pitched, mid-diastolic (gallop rhythm)
  • children
  • decreased ventricular compliance
  • pregnancy
  • LV failure
  • MR
  • AR
  • VSD
  • PDA


  • = late diastolic noise
  • lost in AF
  • diastolc dysfunction
  • ASMR
  • HTN
  • MI
  • angina


  • summation gallop (S3+4 superimposed): HR >120/min
  • opening snap: after S2 – MS
  • systolic ejection click: congenital AS and PS
  • non-ejection click: MVP, ASD

CCC 700 6

Critical Care


Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.

After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.

He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE.  He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of litfl.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.

His one great achievement is being the father of three amazing children.

On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.

| INTENSIVE | RAGE | Resuscitology | SMACC

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.