Heart Sound Abnormalities

S1

Loud

  • MV or TV open long -> shuts forcefully
  • MS
  • increased HR
  • short AV conduction

Soft

  • first degree HB
  • LBBB
  • MR

Splitting

  • RBBB

S2

Loud

  • HT
  • AS
  • PHT

Soft

  • AS
  • AR

Splitting

  • increased normal splitting (wider on inspiration): RBBB, PS, VSD, MR
  • fixed splitting (no respiratory variation): ASD
  • reversed splitting (in expiration): LBBB, AS, coarctation, PDA

S3

  • = low pitched, mid-diastolic (gallop rhythm)
  • children
  • decreased ventricular compliance
  • pregnancy
  • LV failure
  • MR
  • AR
  • VSD
  • PDA

S4

  • = late diastolic noise
  • lost in AF
  • diastolc dysfunction
  • ASMR
  • HTN
  • MI
  • angina

OTHER

  • summation gallop (S3+4 superimposed): HR >120/min
  • opening snap: after S2 – MS
  • systolic ejection click: congenital AS and PS
  • non-ejection click: MVP, ASD

CCC 700 6

Critical Care

Compendium

Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also the Innovation Lead for the Australian Centre for Health Innovation at Alfred Health and Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.

After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.

He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE.  He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of litfl.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.

His one great achievement is being the father of two amazing children.

On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.

| INTENSIVE | RAGE | Resuscitology | SMACC

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