The family Scorpaenidae (Scorpionfish) contains around 45 genera and 380 species. Scorpionfishes have large, heavily ridged heads and venomous spines on their back and fins.
Sea snake envenomation is rare as they are infrequently aggressive and have a smaller apparatus to bite. The most common scenario is a bite from handling, usually when trying to remove them from fishing nets. Classically they cause a descending symmetrical paralysis and myotoxicity.
Australian Scorpions – bizarrely are less dangerous then those found elsewhere in the world. Current evidence would suggest they usually cause temporary pain and minor systemic symptoms only. Interestingly the smaller the scorpion the more painful the bite is.
A taipan envenomation is usually lethal without antivenom treatment. It classically causes a rapid venom induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC), neurotoxicity and myotoxicity.
The Tiger Snakes are the only venomous snake in Tasmania and coexist with brown snakes in Australia with similar clinical features in early envenomation. Also behind the brown snake they can also cause death.
The Death Adder are found throughout most of Australia and Papua New Guinea but bites and envenoming are rare. They are largely nocturnal at is unheard of for them to bite above knee height because they lie in wait for prey twitching its grub-like tail close to its head as a lure.
Brown snake is the most common culprit for severe envenomations in Australia. It classically causes a Venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC) or a partial VICC (20% of envenoming). In a few cases Brown snakes are responsible for collapse and in approximately 5% of those envenomed cardiac arrest, the exact mechanism is unknown but probably secondary direct cardiotoxicity
The Black Snake also confusingly known as the King brown snake or mulga snake. Other similar species include the Butler’s or yellow-bellied black snake, Collett’s snake, blue-bellied or spotted black snake, Papuan black snake and finally the red-bellied or common black snake.
Amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic in low doses will causes and anticholinergic effect but at higher doses prolongs the QT interval with cases of torsades de pointes noted.
Normally used to ameliorate dyskinesia from antipsychotics but has been used for recreational purposes. Benztropine is a potent anticholingeric in overdose. You may also use it yourself as an antidote for an acute dystonic reaction.