A taipan envenomation is usually lethal without antivenom treatment. It classically causes a rapid venom induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC), neurotoxicity and myotoxicity.
The Tiger Snakes are the only venomous snake in Tasmania and coexist with brown snakes in Australia with similar clinical features in early envenomation. Also behind the brown snake they can also cause death.
Brown snake is the most common culprit for severe envenomations in Australia. It classically causes a Venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC) or a partial VICC (20% of envenoming). In a few cases Brown snakes are responsible for collapse and in approximately 5% of those envenomed cardiac arrest, the exact mechanism is unknown but probably secondary direct cardiotoxicity
The Death Adder are found throughout most of Australia and Papua New Guinea but bites and envenoming are rare. They are largely nocturnal at is unheard of for them to bite above knee height because they lie in wait for prey twitching its grub-like tail close to its head as a lure.
The Black Snake also confusingly known as the King brown snake or mulga snake. Other similar species include the Butler's or yellow-bellied black snake, Collett's snake, blue-bellied or spotted black snake, Papuan black snake and finally the red-bellied or common black snake.
Amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic in low doses will causes and anticholinergic effect but at higher doses prolongs the QT interval with cases of torsades de pointes noted.
Normally used to ameliorate dyskinesia from antipsychotics but has been used for recreational purposes. Benztropine is a potent anticholingeric in overdose. You may also use it yourself as an antidote for an acute dystonic reaction.
Lithium is commonly used to treat bipolar, for your toxicology encounter it will come in two varieties, either an acute overdose or chronic toxicity and it is important to distinguish the two (examiners love this question).
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, due to its restricted use an acute overdose is a rare event but clinicians should be aware that coma can occur and management is with supportive care. In chronic toxicity agranulocytosis and myocarditis can occur, these are not features of an acute poisoning but monitored in patients with long term therapeutic use.
Olanzapine is a second generation atypical antipsychotic. Widely used in Australasia and therefore a fairly common presentation to the emergency department. Olanzapine like queitiapine has a predictable dose-dependent CNS depression.
Phenothiazines and butyrophenones are the antipsychotic (neuroleptic) agents. Commonly used agents are chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, droperidol and haloperidol. Other unfamiliar agents include fluphenazine, Pericyazine, Pipothiazine and Trifluoperazine
Quetiapine is a second generation atypical antipsychotic. Widely used in Australasia and therefore a fairly common presentation to the emergency department. Quetiapine is associated with a predictable dose-dependent CNS depression.