Lithium is commonly used to treat bipolar, for your toxicology encounter it will come in two varieties, either an acute overdose or chronic toxicity and it is important to distinguish the two (examiners love this question).
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, due to its restricted use an acute overdose is a rare event but clinicians should be aware that coma can occur and management is with supportive care. In chronic toxicity agranulocytosis and myocarditis can occur, these are not features of an acute poisoning but monitored in patients with long term therapeutic use.
Olanzapine is a second generation atypical antipsychotic. Widely used in Australasia and therefore a fairly common presentation to the emergency department. Olanzapine like queitiapine has a predictable dose-dependent CNS depression.
Quetiapine is a second generation atypical antipsychotic. Widely used in Australasia and therefore a fairly common presentation to the emergency department. Quetiapine is associated with a predictable dose-dependent CNS depression.
Phenothiazines and butyrophenones are the antipsychotic (neuroleptic) agents. Commonly used agents are chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, droperidol and haloperidol. Other unfamiliar agents include fluphenazine, Pericyazine, Pipothiazine and Trifluoperazine
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent associated with tachycardia and acute dystonic reactions.
Have a listen to some of the eclectic toxicology lectures from around the world as we manage to catch these speakers in action.
Calcium channel blockers are not all born the same. Some produce severe cardiotoxic effects which in the past has caused significant mortality and others cause severe peripheral vasodilatation
Beta blocker overdoses can be relatively benign but a couple can causes serious cardiotoxicity and even death if not managed aggressively.
Clonidine has a vast array of uses including anxiety, ADHD, hypertension, withdrawal (opitates, alcohol and smoking), migraines, menopausal flushing, diarrhoea and finally pain. It causes the classic triad of drowsiness, mitosis and bradycardia in overdose.