Cross-sections of the brainstem. A. Rostral midbrain, B. caudal midbrain, C. Pons, D. Rostral medulla, E. Caudal medulla. A= nucleus ambiguus, ML= medial lemniscus, S= nucleus solitarius, SC= Spinothalamic tract, numbers 3-12 refer to cranial nerves. (From Stephen Goldberg’s wondrous book ‘Clinical neuroanatomy made ridiculously simple’)
Signs seen in lateral brainstem syndromes (from Gates, 2005). Note trapezius weakness is rarely seen in lateral medullary lesions.
- Gates P. The rule of 4 of the brainstem: a simplified method for understanding brainstem anatomy and brainstem vascular syndromes for the non-neurologist. Internal Medicine Journal 2005; 35: 263-266 [PMID 15836511]
- Goldberg S. Clinical Neuroanatomy Made Ridiculously Simple. MedMaster Series, 2000 Edition.
- Patten J. Neurological Differential Diagnosis. Springer-Verlag.
- Brainstem Rules of 4 (original rules)
- Helpful Brainstem Figures (original figures)
- The rule of 4 of the brainstem (Rules re-imagined)
- A spider called Willis
- Using the Brainstem 1
- Using the Brainstem 2
- The Magic of the Neuro Exam
- Look Left, Look Right (Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia)
- More Befuddling Pupillary Asymmetry (Horner Syndrome)
Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also the Innovation Lead for the Australian Centre for Health Innovation at Alfred Health, a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University, and the Chair of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Education Committee. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.
After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.
He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE. He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of LITFL.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.
His one great achievement is being the father of two amazing children.
On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.