Katz-Wachtel phenomenon: Tall diphasic QRS complexes (>50 mm in height) in the mid-precordial leads (leads V2, V3 or V4) typically associated with Biventricular Hypertrophy.
1937 – Katz and Wachtel suggested that large diphasic complexes in the standard limb leads were pathognomnic of congenital heart disease. They proposed that the QRS contour may represent combined right and left ventricular ‘strain‘
1963 – Elliott reviewed electrographic and vectorcardiographic criteris for biventricular hypertrophy. They found…
..large diphasic complexes over 50 mm. in either leads V2, V3, V4 were observed in the electrocardiogram of each case of biventricular hypertrophy studied (Katz-Wachtel phenomenon).
- Louis Nelson Katz (1897 – 1973)
- Hans Wachtel (1909 – 1977)
- Katz-Wachtel sign
- Katz LN, Wachtel H. The diphasic QRS type of electrocardiogram in congenital heart disease. Am Heart J. 1937; 13: 202-206.
- Elliott LP, Taylor WP, Schiebler GL. Combined ventricular hypertrophy in infancy: Vectorcardiographic observations with special reference to the Katz-Wachtel phenomenon. Am J Cardiol. 1963;11(2):164-172
- Elliott LP, Anderson RC, Tuna N, Adams P, Neufeld HN. Complete Transposition of the Great Vessels: II. An Electrocardiographic Analysis. Circulation; 1963; 27:1118-1127.
- Cadogan M. History of the Electrocardiogram. LITFL
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