Katz-Wachtel phenomenon

Katz-Wachtel phenomenon: Tall diphasic QRS complexes (>50 mm in height) in the mid-precordial leads (leads V2, V3 or V4) typically associated with Biventricular Hypertrophy.

Katz-Wachtel phenomenon Biventricular hypertrophy in a child with VSD
Katz-Wachtel phenomenon
History of Katz-Wachtel phenomenon

1937 – Katz and Wachtel suggested that large diphasic complexes in the standard limb leads were pathognomnic of congenital heart disease. They proposed that the QRS contour may represent combined right and left ventricular ‘strain

1963 – Elliott reviewed electrographic and vectorcardiographic criteris for biventricular hypertrophy. They found…

..large diphasic complexes over 50 mm. in either leads V2, V3, V4 were observed in the electrocardiogram of each case of biventricular hypertrophy studied (Katz-Wachtel phenomenon).

Associated Persons
Alternative names
  • Katz-Wachtel sign
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