ECG Basics

ECG Basics


ECG Waves


Intervals and Segments


ECG anatomy


Clinical Interpretation


Search the ECG Library (with Ninja hidden keywords…)

TopicTitleDEADKeywords
ECG Eponym

Hay Block (1906) - [Mobitz II AV Block] (HAY, John)

ECG, Mobitz AV Block, Mobitz Type II, 2nd degree AV block, atrioventricular block
ECG Eponym

Mobitz Classification of Second degree Atrioventricular Block (1924) MOBITZ, Woldemar

ECG, Mobitz AV Block2nd degree AV block, atrioventricular block
ECG Eponym

Romano-Ward Syndrome (1963) [ROMANO, Cesarino] [WARD, Owen Conor]

ECG Syndrome, Congenital (autosomal dominant) long QT syndrome (LQTS)
ECG Eponym

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome (1957)

[JERVELL, Anton] [LANGE-NIELSEN, Fred]

ECG Syndrome, JLNS, Congenital (autosomal recessive) long QT syndrome (LQTS) bilateral sensorineural hearing loss
ECG Eponym

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (1930)

[WOLFF] [PARKINSON] [WHITE]

ECG Syndrome, short P-R, PR interval, paroxysmal tachycardia, pre-excitation, preexcitation
ECG Eponym

Bornholm disease (1930) [SYLVEST, Ejner]

Chest Pain, acute, transient viral myositis associated with Coxsackievirus B. Epidemic Myalgia, pleurodynia
ECG Eponym

Da Costa Syndrome (1871) [DA COSTA, Jacob Mendes]

Chest Pain, Soldiers heart, cardiac neurosis, neurocirculatory asthenia
ECG Exigency

Syncope, shock and chest pain

LMCA, Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion, ST elevation in aVR
ECG Exigency

VT or not VT?

VT, BCT, WCT, Brugada criteria, Verekie
ECG Exigency

Metabolic Mayhem

severe hypokalaemia, spironalactone, rhabdomyolysis, ECG, u wave, diabetic ketoacidosis
ECG Exigency

Post-op Pacing Puzzler

pacing, pacemaker, post-op, Mobitz I, Wenckebach, AV block
ECG Exigency

Troubling Tachycardia

bidirectional ventricular tachycardia, Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia, CPVT, digoxin toxicity
ECG Exigency

Flummoxing Familial Fibrillation

congenital, short QT syndrome, SQTS, AF, Atrial fibrillation
ECG Exigency

Sporting Sudden Syncope

RVOT, broad complex tachycardia, BCT, Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia, VF, Arrest, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, ARVC
ECG Exigency

Subtly Sinister

NSTEMI, inverted U wave,
ECG Exigency

Scary Seizures and Somnolence

tricyclic antidepressant, TCA, Doxepin, QRS broadening, cardiotoxic
ECG Exigency

Marathon related ECG

AIVR, Accelerated idioventricular rhythm, Isorhythmic AV dissociation, Sinus arrhythmia, idioventricular
ECG Exigency

Puzzling Paroxysmal Palpitations

LAD, LBBB, High left ventricular voltage, HLVV, WPW, Broad Complex Tachycardia
ECG Exigency

Risky Rhythms

tachy-brady, AVNRT, flutter, polymorphic VT, VF, torsades de pointes, R on T, Cardioversion
ECG Exigency

Pain free and in VT

LBBB, Wellens, ECG, proximal LAD, occlusion, rate-dependent, inferior ischaemia
ECG Exigency

ECG Exigency

SI QIII TIII, PE, PTE pulmonary embolism, PEA arrest, RBBB, LAD
Curveball

Cardiac Megacode

HOCM, STE, aVR, LMCA, torsades des pointes. TDP
Curveball

Something’s not right…

aortic arch, right sided, diverticulum of Kommerell
Curveball

Intra-aortic Balloon Pump

IABP, CABG, shock, circulatory collapse
Curveball

The Paradoxical Alternative

electrical alternans, ECG, pulsus paradoxus
Curveball

Trouble-Shooting the IABP

Intra-aortic Balloon Pump, Waveform, dicrotic notch
Curveball

DeBakey Dissection

DeBakey, TAA, aortic dissection, CTA
Curveball

Tetraology of Fallot and BT shunts

Tetraology of Fallot, BT shunt, Blalock-Tausig, ToF
Curveball

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary Embolism, PTE, PE, McConnell, thrombolysis, echo
ECG Exigency

Another Widow Maker

LMCA Stenosis, ST elevation in aVR, Left Main Coronary Artery
ECG Exigency

Winter is Coming

anterior AMI, De Winter T waves, LAD stenosis
ECG Exigency

Pacemaker Panic #2

dual chamber AV sequential pacemaker
ECG Basics

ECG Rate Interpretation

Rate, estimate, 25 mm/s, 50 mm/s, 10 mm/s,
ECG Basics

ECG Rhythm Evaluation

ECG Rhythm interpretation, 7 step approach
ECG Basics

ECG Axis

ECG Axis hexaxial, SUPER SAM, isoelectric lead, quadrant,
ECG Basics

ECG lead positioning

3 lead, 5 lead, 12 lead, electrodes, lead placement
ECG Basics

ECG Exam Template

Template, presentation, formulation, exam, answer
ECG Basics

Wave: P Wave

p-wave, positive deflection, Atrial depolarisation
ECG Basics

Wave: Q Wave

pathological, stemi
ECG Basics

Wave: R wave

Dominant R wave in aVR
ECG Basics

Wave: T wave

camel hump, biphasic, Peaked, Hyperacute, Inverted, Flattened t-waves
ECG Basics

Wave: U wave

NSTEMI, Prinzmetal, Unstable, Inverted, quinidine, hypokalaemia, bradycardia, Prominent U waves
ECG Basics

Wave: J Wave

osborn wave, camel hump sign of Osborn, hypothermic hump, late delta wave, hathook junction, J wave, H wave, K wave
ECG Basics

Wave: Delta wave

WPE, Pre-Excitation Syndrome
ECG Basics

Wave: Epsilon wave

Epsilon wave, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), Prolonged S-wave upstroke
ECG Basics

Interval: PR Interval

PR Interval, Prolonged PR
ECG Basics

Interval: PR Segment

P-R Segment, pericarditis, atrial ischaemia, PR-segment depression, TP segment
ECG Basics

Interval: QT Interval

QT Interval, SQTS, LQTS, Segment, Q-T
ECG Basics

Interval: ST Segment

STEMI, ST depression, ST elevation,
ECG Basics

J Point

Interval J-Point,
ECG Basics

QRS Morphology

Interval QRS, broad, narrow
ECG Anatomy

Atrial Enlargement - LEFT

Left Atrial Enlargement, LAE, Left atrial hypertrophy, LAH, left atrial abnormality, bifid P wave, mitrale
ECG Anatomy

Atrial Enlargement - RIGHT

Right Atrial Enlargement, RAE, Right atrial hypertrophy, RAH, right atrial abnormality, p pulmonale
ECG Anatomy

Atrial Enlargement - BIATRIAL

RAH LAH RAE LAE atrial hypertrophy
ECG Basics

Block: Conduction

Conduction block differential
ECG Basics

ECG Differential Diagnosis

ECG Differential Diagnosis
BasicsVT vs SVThttps://litfl.com/vt-versus-svt-ecg-library/VT vs SVT
ECG Basics

ECG AMI localisation

Myocardial infarction, localization, MI, STEMI
ECG Basics

Paediatric Interpretation

Pediatric paeds, pediat
BasicsEponymous Syndromeshttps://litfl.com/ecg-library/eponymous-cardiac-syndromes/Eponymous Syndromes
ECG Diagnosis

Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm (AIVR)

Accelerated Ventricular Rhythm, Isorhythmic AV dissociation, fusion, capture beat, interference-dissociation
ECG Diagnosis

Accelerated Junctional Rhythm (AJR)

Accelerated Junctional Rhythm
ECG Diagnosis

Anterior Myocardial Infarction STEMI

AMI, STEMI, Anterior, Anterolateral, Tombstone, Ostial LAD, septal STEMI
ECG Diagnosis

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia, ARVD, Naxos Disease
ECG Diagnosis

Atrial Flutter

Atrial Flutter
ECG Diagnosis

Atrial Fibrillation (AF)

https://litfl.com/atrial-fibrillation-ecg-library/PAF, AF, lone
ECG Diagnosis

Premature Atrial Complex (PAC)

Atrial ectopics, atrial extrasystoles, atrial premature beats, atrial premature depolarisations
ECG Diagnosis

Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial Tachycardia, Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia, PAT, AT
ECG Diagnosis

Block: 1st Degree

first Degree AV block, lengthen, long, PR interval
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Mobitz 1 Wenckebach

AV block, second degree, 2nd, Mobitz 1, Wenkebach
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Mobitz 2 Hay

Block: Mobitz 2 Hay
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Fixed Ratio

3:1, 4:1, 2:1 AV Block
ECG Diagnosis

Block: High Grade

2nd degree AV block, 2nd degree heart block, Second degree AV block, 4:1 AV block
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Complete Heart Block (CHB)

CHB, 3rd degree AV block, Third degree heart block
DiagnosisSupraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)https://litfl.com/supraventricular-tachycardia-svt-ecg-library/Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)
DiagnosisAVNRT (AV-nodal re-entry tachycardia)https://litfl.com/supraventricular-tachycardia-svt-ecg-library/AVNRT (AV-nodal re-entry tachycardia)
DiagnosisPre-excitation Syndromeshttps://litfl.com/pre-excitation-syndromes-ecg-library/Pre-excitation Syndromes
DiagnosisAVRT (atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia)https://litfl.com/pre-excitation-syndromes-ecg-library/AVRT (atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia)
DiagnosisBenign Early Repolarisationhttps://litfl.com/benign-early-repolarisation-ecg-library/Benign Early Repolarisation
ECG Toxicology

Beta Blocker overdose

beta-blocker overdose, betablocker overdose, calcium channel toxicity, sodium channel blockade
ECG Toxicology

Calcium-channel blocker toxicity

beta-blocker overdose, betablocker overdose, calcium channel toxicity, sodium channel blockade
DiagnosisBidirectional Ventricular Tachycardiahttps://litfl.com/bidirectional-ventricular-tachycardia-bvt-ecg-library/Bidirectional Ventricular Tachycardia
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Bifascicular Block

Bifascicular Block, RBBB + LAFB, LPFB
ECG Diagnosis

Biventricular Hypertrophy

Biventricular Hypertrophy, Katz-Wachtel phenomenon
EponymBrugada Syndromehttps://litfl.com/brugada-syndrome-ecg-library/Brugada Syndrome
ECG Toxicology

Carbamazepine Cardiotoxicity

Carbamazepine Cardiotoxicity
DiagnosisDilated Cardiomyopathyhttps://litfl.com/dilated-cardiomyopathy-dcm-ecg-library/Dilated Cardiomyopathy
ECG Diagnosis

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

HCM, HOCM, IHSS, Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
ECG Diagnosis

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy RCM low voltage QRS
DiagnosisECG Chronic Lung Diseasehttps://litfl.com/ecg-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease/ECG Chronic Lung Disease
ECG Eponym

de Winter T waves (2008) DE WINTER, Robbert J.

STEMI, wave, T-wave, infarction, anterior STEMI equivalent, peaked T waves
DiagnosisDextrocardiahttps://litfl.com/dextrocardia-ecg-library/Dextrocardia
ECG Toxicology

Digoxin Effect

Digoxin Effect, Salvador Dali moustache, ST depression, Shortened QT interval
ECG Toxicology

Digoxin Toxicity

Digoxin Toxicity
DiagnosisElectrical alternanshttps://litfl.com/ecg-findings-in-massive-pericardial-effusion/Electrical alternans
DiagnosisJunctional Escape Rhythmhttps://litfl.com/junctional-escape-rhythm-ecg-library/Junctional Escape Rhythm
DiagnosisVentricular Escape Rhythmhttps://litfl.com/ventricular-escape-rhythm-ecg-library/Ventricular Escape Rhythm
DiagnosisFascicular VThttps://litfl.com/idiopathic-fascicular-left-ventricular-tachycardia/Fascicular VT
DiagnosisFusion Beats (Dressler)https://litfl.com/fusion-beat-dressler-beat-ecg-library/Fusion Beats (Dressler)
DiagnosisElectrolyte: Hypercalcaemiahttps://litfl.com/hypercalcaemia-ecg-library/Electrolyte: Hypercalcaemia
ECG Diagnosis

Electrolyte: Hyperkalaemia

sine wave, Hyperkalaemia
ECG Diagnosis

Hyperthyroidism

Thyroid, high left ventricular voltage, HLVV,
ECG Diagnosis

Electrolyte: Hypocalcaemia

Hypocalcemia, calcium, prolonged QT, QTc
ECG Diagnosis

Electrolyte: Hypokalaemia

Hypokalaemia, u wave, TDP
ECG Diagnosis

Electrolyte: Hypomagnasemia

Hypomagnasaemia, magnesium, MG2+
ECG Diagnosis

Hypothermia

Hypothermia, temperaturre, environmental, osborn wave, shivering
ECG Diagnosis

Hypothyroidism

thyroid, low QRS voltage
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Interventricular Block

QRS widening, broad wide QRS
DiagnosisRaised Intracranial Pressurehttps://litfl.com/raised-intracranial-pressure-ecg-library/Raised Intracranial Pressure
ECG Diagnosis

R Wave Peak Time RWPT

RBBB, LAFB, SVT vs VT
ECG Diagnosis

Premature Junctional Complex (PJC)

Junctional Ectopics, Junctional Extrasystoles, Junctional Premature Beats, Junctional Premature Depolarisations
ECG Diagnosis

Lateral STEMI

STEMI
DiagnosisECG Limb Lead Reversalhttps://litfl.com/ecg-limb-lead-reversal-ecg-library/ECG Limb Lead Reversal
DiagnosisUpper Limb Lead reversalhttps://litfl.com/lead-reversal-left-arm-right-arm-ecg-library/Upper Limb Lead reversal
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Left Anterior Fascicular Block (LAFB)

LAFB, left anterior hemiblock, left anterior hemi-block
ECG Diagnosis

Left Axis Deviation

Left Axis Deviation, LAD
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Left Bundle Branch Block LBBB

William Morrow,
DiagnosisSgarbossa Criteriahttps://litfl.com/sgarbossa-criteria-ecg-library/Sgarbossa Criteria
ECG Diagnosis

Left Main Coronary artery occlusion

AMI, STEMI, LMCA
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Left Posterior Fascicular Block (LPFB)

RAD, qR complex, rS complex, R wave peak time
DiagnosisLeft Ventricular Aneursymhttps://litfl.com/left-ventricular-aneursym-ecg-library/Left Ventricular Aneursym
ECG Diagnosis

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

LVH
DiagnosisLow QRS voltagehttps://litfl.com/low-qrs-voltage-ecg-library/Low QRS voltage
DiagnosisECG Motion Artefactshttps://litfl.com/ecg-motion-artefacts-ecg-library/ECG Motion Artefacts
ECG Diagnosis

Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (MAT)

Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia, Chaotic atrial tachycardia
DiagnosisMyocardial Ischaemiahttps://litfl.com/myocardial-ischaemia-ecg-library/Myocardial Ischaemia
DiagnosisMyocarditishttps://litfl.com/myocarditis-ecg-library/Myocarditis
DiagnosisPacemaker Rhythmshttps://litfl.com/pacemaker-rhythms-normal-patterns/Pacemaker Rhythms
DiagnosisPacemaker Malfunctionhttps://litfl.com/pacemaker-malfunction-ecg-library/Pacemaker Malfunction
DiagnosisPericarditishttps://litfl.com/pericarditis-ecg-library/Pericarditis
DiagnosisPolymorphic VThttps://litfl.com/polymorphic-vt-and-torsades-de-pointes-tdp/Polymorphic VT
DiagnosisPoor R Wave Progressionhttps://litfl.com/poor-r-wave-progression-prwp-ecg-library/Poor R Wave Progression
ECG Diagnosis

Posterior Myocardial Infarction

Posterior MI, ST depression, flip V2, precordial depression, deep q
ECG Diagnosis

Premature Ventricular Complex (PVC)

ventricular ectopics, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular premature beats, ventricular premature depolarisations.
DiagnosisPulmonary Embolismhttps://litfl.com/ecg-changes-in-pulmonary-embolism/Pulmonary Embolism
ECG Toxicology

Quetiapine Toxicity

sinus tachycardia, Prolonged QTc interval
ECG Diagnosis

Right Axis Deviation

Right Axis Deviation, RAD
ECG Diagnosis

Block: Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB)

William Morrow, RSR’ pattern, Wide slurred S wave
ECG Diagnosis

Right Ventricular Hypertrophy

RVH
ECG Diagnosis

Right Ventricular Infarction

Myocardial infraction, AMI, STEMI, RV, RVI, Right sided leads, V4r, V1-6r
ECG Diagnosis

Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT) Tachycardia

Idiopathic VT, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia, RVOT, ARVD, ARVC
ECG Diagnosis

Right Ventricular Strain

Right Ventricular Strain, RVS, RVH, PE, PTE, ARVC
ECG Diagnosis

Short QT Syndrome

Short QT Syndrome SQTS
ECG Basics

Normal Sinus Rhythm

NSR
ECG Basics

Sinus Arrhythmia

Sinus Arrhythmia
ECG Diagnosis

Sinus Bradycardia

Sinus Bradycardia
ECG Diagnosis

Sinus Node Dysfunction (Sick Sinus Syndrome)

Sinus Node Dysfunction (Sick Sinus Syndrome) sss
DiagnosisSinoatrial Exit Blockhttps://litfl.com/sinoatrial-exit-block-ecg-library/Sinoatrial Exit Block
ECG Diagnosis

Sinus tachycardia

camel hump, >100 bpm
ToxicologyOverdose: TCAhttps://litfl.com/tricyclic-overdose-sodium-channel-blocker-toxicity/Overdose: TCA
ECG Diagnosis

Anterior STEMI

Anterior STEMI, anterolateral, anteroseptal, tombstones
ECG Diagnosis

High lateral STEMI

STEMI, AMI, lateral, reciprocal ST depression, T wave inversion, diagonal branch (D1)
ECG Diagnosis

Inferior STEMI

STEMI, tombstones, lateral reciprocal, AMI, dominant right coronary artery, RCA, LCx, dominant left circumflex artery
ECG Diagnosis

Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy

broken heart syndrome, octopus pot, Transient akinesis, apical akinesia, Cathecholamine Surge
DiagnosisBlock: Trifascicular Blockhttps://litfl.com/trifascicular-block-ecg-library/Block: Trifascicular Block
ECG Diagnosis

Ventricular Fibrillation

VF, shockable cardiac arrest rhythm, irregular electrical activity, quivering, Chaotic, coarse, fine
ECG Diagnosis

Ventricular Flutter

Extreme Ventricular tachycardia, Sine Wave, identical upside down
DiagnosisVentricular Tachycardiahttps://litfl.com/ventricular-tachycardia-monomorphic-ecg-library/Ventricular Tachycardia
ECG Diagnosis

Wellens Syndrome

biphasic T wave, V2-3, critical stenosis, left anterior descending artery, LAD
Blog Post

Who’s Afraid Of The Big Bad Wolff?

WPW, Pre-Excitation Syndrome
ECG Eponym

Bazett Formula (BAZETT, Henry Cuthbert)

Bazett's formula, QT interval, QTc
ECG Eponym

Osborn Wave (1953) - [OSBORN, John J]

camel hump sign of Osborn, hypothermic hump, late delta wave, hathook junction, J wave, H wave, K wave
ECG Eponym

Fridericia Formula - (FRIDERICIA, Louis Sigurd)

QT interval, QTc
ECG Exigency

Diagnosis, Wenckebach Squared?

Wenckebach, AV block, SA, deliberate mistake, SA block
ECG Eponym

First ECG in a human 1887 - WALLER, Augustus Desiré

ECG, Jimmy the dog
ECG Eponym

Luciani period (1873) - LUCIANI, Luigi

Group beating, second degree, AV block 2nd degree
ECG Eponym

Demonstrated AV block in humans (1873) - GALABIN, Alfred Lewis

ECG, Mobitz AV Block, Mobitz, 2nd degree AV block, atrioventricular block, apexcardiogram
ECG Eponym

Wenckebach Phenomenon (1898) - (WENCKEBACH, Karel Frederik)

ECG, Mobitz AV Block, Mobitz Type I, 2nd degree AV block, atrioventricular block, wenkebach
ECG Diagnosis

Drugs Causing QT Prolongation

QT prolong, QTc, toxicology
ECG Eponym

Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome (1952)

[LOWN, Bernard] [GANONG JR, William Francis] [LEVINE, Samuel Albert]

ECG Syndrome, LGL, AVRT, pre-excitation, accessory conduction pathway, short PR interval
Eponym Murmur

Gibson murmur (1906) [GIBSON, George Alexander]

Murmur, machinery murmur, second left interspace, patent ductus arteriosus, PDA
Eponym Murmur

Key-Hodgkin murmur (1827) [KEY] [HODGKIN]

Murmur, diastolic murmur, aortic regurgitation, saw cutting through wood
Eponym Murmur

Carey Coombs Murmur (1907) [COOMBS, Carey Franklin]

Murmur, mid-diastolic murmur of acute rheumatic mitral valvulitis diastolic
Eponym Murmur

Bruit de Roger (1879) [ROGER, Henri-Louis]

Murmur. VSD, ventricular septal defects
Eponym Murmur

Still's murmur (1909) [STILL, Sir George Frederic]

Murmur, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, vibratory murmur, physiological bruit, benign functional
Eponym Murmur

Cabot–Locke murmur (1903)

[CABOT, Richard Clarke] [LOCKE, Edwin Allen]

Murmur, early diastolic murmur, untreated anaemia
Eponym Murmur

Carey Coombs Murmur (1907) [COOMBS, Carey Franklin]

Murmur, mid-diastolic murmur of acute rheumatic mitral valvulitis diastolic
Eponym Murmur

Dock's murmur (1967) [DOCK, William]

Murmur, Early diastolic murmur, severe stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery
Eponym Murmur

Graham Steell Murmur (1888) [STEELL, Graham]

Murmur, high pitched early diastolic murmur, pulmonary incompetence, pulmonary hypertension
Eponym Murmur

Austin Flint Murmur (1862) [FLINT, Austin]

Murmur, mid-diastolic aortic regurgitant murmur heard at the apex
Eponym Murmur

Rivero-Carvallo sign and manouver

[RIVERO-CARVALLO, José Manuel]

TR, TS, Accentuation, tricuspid stenosis, tricuspid regurgitation
ECG Eponym

Lenègre-Lev disease (1964) [LENEGRE, Jean] [LEV, Maurice]

Acquired CHB, complete heart block

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