With reversal of the LA and RA electrodes, Einthoven’s triangle flips 180 degrees horizontally around an axis formed by lead aVF.
This has the following effects on the ECG:
- Lead I becomes inverted.
- Leads II and III switch places.
- Leads aVL and aVR switch places.
- Lead aVF remains unchanged.
Quick guide to spotting LA/RA reversal
- Lead I is completely inverted (P wave, QRS complex and T wave).
- Lead aVR often becomes positive.
- There may be marked right axis deviation.
LA/RA reversal may simulate dextrocardia. However, in contrast to dextrocardia there is normal R wave progression in the precordial leads.
- Lead reversals: Limb Lead Reversals (overview)
- The power of social media leads to reversal – LITFL
- Batchvarov VN, Malik M, Camm AJ. Incorrect electrode cable connection during electrocardiographic recording. Europace. 2007 Nov;9(11):1081-90. PMID 17932025
- Wiesbauer F, Kühn P. ECG Mastery: Yellow Belt online course. Understand ECG basics. Medmastery
- Wiesbauer F, Kühn P. ECG Mastery: Blue Belt online course: Become an ECG expert. Medmastery
- Kühn P, Houghton A. ECG Mastery: Black Belt Workshop. Advanced ECG interpretation. Medmastery
- Rawshani A. Clinical ECG Interpretation ECG Waves
- Smith SW. Dr Smith’s ECG blog.
- Zimmerman FH. ECG Core Curriculum. 2023
- Mattu A, Berberian J, Brady WJ. Emergency ECGs: Case-Based Review and Interpretations, 2022
- Straus DG, Schocken DD. Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography 13e, 2021
- Brady WJ, Lipinski MJ et al. Electrocardiogram in Clinical Medicine. 1e, 2020
- Mattu A, Tabas JA, Brady WJ. Electrocardiography in Emergency, Acute, and Critical Care. 2e, 2019
- Hampton J, Adlam D. The ECG Made Practical 7e, 2019
- Kühn P, Lang C, Wiesbauer F. ECG Mastery: The Simplest Way to Learn the ECG. 2015
- Grauer K. ECG Pocket Brain (Expanded) 6e, 2014
- Surawicz B, Knilans T. Chou’s Electrocardiography in Clinical Practice: Adult and Pediatric 6e, 2008
- Chan TC. ECG in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care 1e, 2004
LITFL Further Reading
- ECG Library Basics – Waves, Intervals, Segments and Clinical Interpretation
- ECG A to Z by diagnosis – ECG interpretation in clinical context
- ECG Exigency and Cardiovascular Curveball – ECG Clinical Cases
- 100 ECG Quiz – Self-assessment tool for examination practice
- ECG Reference SITES and BOOKS – the best of the rest