Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome


Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome (LGL): Proposed pre-excitation syndrome. Accessory pathway composed of James fibres. Characteristic ECG findings of short PR interval (<120ms); normal P wave axis; normal/narrow QRS morphology in the presence of paroxysmal tachyarrhythmia.

Existence of LGL is disputed and the condition may not actually exist…the term should not be used in the absence of paroxysmal tachycardia

Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome (LGL)
Example of Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome


1921-1952 – association of paroxysmal tachycardia, short AV conduction time, and normal QRS complexes reported across 11 cases, but usually attributed to being a variant of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

1938 – Clerc, Levy and Critesco first described ECG findings of a short PR interval, normal QRS complex, and paroxysmal tachycardia. [Archives des Maladies du Coeur 1938]

1952 – Lown, Ganong and Levine performed the first study correlating the characteristic ECG changes with clinical findings, which distinguished patients with paroxysmal tachycardia, short PR interval, and normal QRS complexes from Wolff-Parkinson-White characteristics. [Circulation 1952]

1961 – James described accessory pathway connections between the atria and distal atrioventricular node, which may have a role in the pathophysiology of LGL syndrome [Am Heart J. 1961]

1975 – Brechenmacher described accessory pathways between the atria and bundle of His, which may also be involved in LGL syndrome [Br Heart J. 1975]

Associated Persons

Alternative Names

  • Clerc-Lévy-Cristesco syndrome
  • Coronary nodal rhythm syndrome
  • Short PQ interval syndrome
  • Short PR-normal QRS syndrome
  • Short P-R syndrome


  • Clerc A, Levy R, Critesco C. A propos du raccourcissement permanent de l’espace P-R de l’electrocardiogramme: sans deformation du complexe ventriculaire (About the permanent shortening of the P-R interval on the electrocardiogram: Without deformation of the ventricular complex) Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux. 1938;31:569–582.
  • Wedd AM. Paroxysmal tachycardia, with reference to nomotropic tachycardia and the role of the extrinsic cardiac nerves. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1921; 27(5):571-590
  • Hunter A, Papp C, Parkinson J. The syndrome of short P-R interval, apparent bundle branch block and associated paroxysmal tachycardia. Brit. Heart J. 1940;2: 107-122 [PMC480932]
  • Burch GE, Kimball JL. Notes on the similarity of QRS complex configuration in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Am. Heart J. 1946;32: 560 [PMID 20274716]
  • Littman D. Aberrant auriculoventricular conduction in a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia, a short P-R interval and a normal QRS complex. Am. J. Med. 1947;2: 126 [PMID 20278458]
  • Söderström N. Observations on the significance of shortened P-R intervals in the electrocardiogram. Cardiologia 1943;7:1–28
  • Lown B, Ganong WF, Levine SA. The syndrome of short P-R interval, normal QRS complex and paroxysmal rapid heart action. Circulation. 1952 May;5(5):693-706. [PMID 14926053]
  • James TN. Morphology of the human atrioventricular node, with remarks pertinent to its electrophysiology. Am Heart J. 1961 Dec;62:756-71. [PMID 14451029]
  • Brechenmacher C. Atrio-His bundle tracts. Br Heart J. 1975 Aug;37(8):853-5. [PMC482885]

eponymictionary CTA 2


medical etymology

Doctor in Australia. Keen interest in internal medicine, medical education, and medical history.

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