Marathon-related ECG Exasperation

aka ECG Exigency 005

The following two ECGs were taken from a 36-year old marathon runner presenting to the ED with acute gastroenteritis.

He was completely asymptomatic at the time the ECGs were taken, with normal blood pressure and no chest pain, palpitations or dizziness. Electrolytes were normal.

ECG Exigency 005 01
ECG 1
ECG Exigency 005 02
ECG 2

Questions

Q1. What are the ECG findings?

Answer and Interpretation

ECGs findings include:

  • Accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR) at around 60 bpm
  • Multiple sinus capture beats
  • Isorhythmic AV dissociation: Sinus P waves are buried in the QRS complexes and T waves at a similar rate to the ventricular rhythm – best seen in the rhythm strip in ECG # 2
  • Sinus arrhythmia, with variation in the PP interval of up to 0.2 s

Summary

  • Competing sinus and idioventricular pacemakers are present.
  • There is underlying sinus arrhythmia, with sinus capture occurring when the sinus rate exceeds the idioventricular rate.

Definitions

Accelerated idioventricular rhythm:

  • An ectopic ventricular rhythm consisting of three or more ventricular complexes occurring at a rate of 50-110 bpm.
  • The rate differentiates AIVR from ventricular escape rhythms (rate < 50 bpm) and VT (> 110bpm).

Isorhythmic AV dissociation:

  • AV dissociation with sinus and ventricular complexes occurring at similar rates, unlike 3rddegree heart block where the atrial rate is usually faster than the ventricular rate.
  • Isorhythmic AV dissociation is usually due to functional block at the AV node from retrogradely conducted ventricular impulses (“interference-dissociation”), which leaves the AV node refractory to the anterograde sinus impulses.

Sinus arrhythmia:

  • Sinus rhythm in which the PP interval varies by 0.16 s or more.

Q2. What is the mechanism of this arrhythmia?

Answer and Interpretation

The likely mechanism of the AIVR in this patient is enhanced automaticity of an ectopic pacemaker in the ventricles coupled with sinus bradycardia and sinus arrhythmia due to athletic training.

There are pacemaker cells at various sites throughout the conducting system, with each site capable of independently sustaining the heart rhythmThe rate of spontaneous depolarisation of pacemaker cells decreases down the conducting system:

  • SA node (60-100 bpm)
  • Atria (< 60 bpm)
  • AV node (40-60 bpm)
  • Ventricles (20-40 bpm)

Under normal conditions, subsidiary pacemakers are suppressed by the more rapid impulses from the sinus node. AIVR occurs when the rate of an ectopic ventricular pacemaker exceeds that of the sinus node.

  • Athletic training leads to changes in the autonomic nervous system, with increased resting vagal tone and decreased sympathetic tone.
  • This hypervagotonic state causes suppression of impulse generation by the SA node and propagation by the AV node.
  • As a result, athletic individuals will commonly exhibit sinus bradycardia and low-grade AV blocks (e.g. 1st degree heart blockMobitz I).

Q3. What are the other causes of this arrhythmia?

Answer and Interpretation

AIVR is most commonly seen during the reperfusion phase of an acute myocardial infarction. It is also seen with:

  • Drug toxicity, especially digoxin, cocaine and volatile anaesthetics such as desflurane
  • Electrolyte abnormalities
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Myocarditis
  • Following return of spontaneous circulation in the post-cardiac-arrest period

Q4. What other ECG abnormalities are common in athletes?

Answer and Interpretation

The following abnormalities may be present, due to autonomic conditioning (enhanced vagal tone, decreased sympathetic tone) and ventricular hypertrophy:


Q5. How should this rhythm be managed?

Answer and Interpretation

Management

  • AIVR is a benign rhythm in most settings and does not usually require treatment.
  • Administration of anti-arrhythmics may cause precipitous haemodynamic deterioration and should be avoided.
  • Treat the underlying cause:
    • correct electrolytes
    • restore myocardial perfusion
    • give Digibind in the case of digoxin toxicity.
  • Patients with low-cardiac-output states (e.g. dilated cardiomyopathy) may benefit from restoration of AV synchrony to restore atrial ’kick’ – in this case atropine may be used to increase sinus rate and AV conduction

References

ECG Exigency 700 4

CLINICAL CASES

ECG EXIGENCY

Emergency Physician in Prehospital and Retrieval Medicine in Sydney, Australia. He has a passion for ECG interpretation and medical education | ECG Library |

2 Comments

  1. Dr. Shyamal Kumar Chatterjee
    Dr. Shyamal Kumar Chatterjee

    Thank you very much Sir. I am so so grateful to you sir for getting a lot of knowledge and informations in ECG and Cardiology.

  2. Augustine Smithies
    Augustine Smithies

    Thanks for making really complicated things comprehensible. Your articles are excellent and a really good resource.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.