- mechanisms of toxicity: acid-base disturbance, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, disordered glucose metabolism
- nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tinnitus
- deafness, hyperventilation, flushed skin, sweating, hyperthermia
- may aspirate, pulmonary oedema and ARDS
- cardiovascular instability
- high salicylate level (mild – < 500mg/L, moderate 500-750mg/L, severe > 750mg/L)
- metabolic acidosis – lactate
- respiratory alkalosis – hyperventilation
- ECG: widened QRS, AV block, ventricular arrhythmias
- hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia
- renal failure
- maintain intravascular volume
- intubate if unrousable
Acid-base and Electrolyte Abnormalities
- glucose infusion if hypoglycaemic
- correct electrolytes
- vitamin K if hypoprothrombinaemia
- sodium bicarbonate for severe acidosis
- no role for forced alkaline diuresis any more
- dialysis in moderate to severe cases
- supportive care
References and Links
- Pediatric perplexity – Hyperammoniacal Encephalopathy
Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.
After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.
He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE. He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of litfl.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.
His one great achievement is being the father of three amazing children.
On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.