Bronchial breath sounds are characterised by expiration and inspiration producing noise of equal loudness and duration, sounding like blowing through a hollow tube. The expiratory sound is heard during the greater part of expiration, whereas the inspiratory sound stops abruptly at the height of inspiration, with a pause before the sound of expiration is heard.
Similar sounds are heard over the trachea, and the sounds occur as a result of abnormally increase transmission of airway sounds to the surface of the chest.
- lung consolidation
- localised fibrosis
- above a pleural effusion
- collapsed lung (e.g. adjacent to pleural effusion)