Differential diagnosis of eye trauma. Trauma can result in a range of injuries, both blunt and penetrating.
Types of injuries
Following the anatomical structures of the eye from front to back, the important injuries are:
- lid injury
- orbital blow-out fracture
- corneal abrasion
- anterior hyphema
- traumatic mydriasis
- lens dislocation
- vitreous hemorrhage
- retinal detachment
- traumatic iritis
- ruptured globe
The major types of penetrating eye injury are:
- eye lid lacerations
- corneal lacerations
- scleral lacerations
- perforating trauma (+/- an exit wound) including occult foreign body penetration (e.g. when metal strikes metal)
There may also be associated injuries to:
- intraocular structures — e.g. lens, iris, retina
- extraocular structures — e.g. lids, extra-ocular muscles, orbital bones, optic nerve and brain
References and Links
- Ophthalmology Befuddler 013 — Eyes Wide Split
- Ophthalmology Befuddler 031 — Blunt Trauma to the Eye
- Ophthalmology Befuddler 033 — Bashed, Blind and Bulging
Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.
After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.
He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE. He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of litfl.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.
His one great achievement is being the father of three amazing children.
On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.