• osmotic diuretic
  • an alcohol derived from Dahlia tubers (6 carbon sugar)


  • increases the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate -> increasing urinary volume
  • decreases CSF volume and pressure by
    1. decreasing rate of CSF production
    2. withdrawing brain extracellular water across the BBB into plasma


  • sterile solution
  • 10-20% in water


  • decrease ICP: 0.25g/kg over 15min to 1g/kg
  • onset – minutes
  • duration – 3 hrs


  1. reduce CSF volume -> reduce ICP
  2. preserve renal function during peri-operative period in jaundice patients under going major vascular surgery.
  3. acute management of glaucoma
  4. bowel prep
  5. initiate diuresis in transplanted kidney
  6. treatment for rhabdomyolysis


  • hypovolaemia
  • diuresis
  • washes out medullary interstitial gradient -> decreased ability to concentrate urine
  • hypokalaemia and hyponatraemia
  • should be discontinued if Na+ > 160 or osmolarity > 320mosmol/kg


  • Absorption – 20% absorbed orally
  • Distribution – Vd 0.5L/kg
  • Metabolism – not metabolized
  • Elimination – Cl = 7mL/min/kg, t1/2 = 72min

CCC Neurocritical Care Series

CCC Pharmacology Series

Critical Care


Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme. He is on the Board of Directors for the Intensive Care Foundation and is a First Part Examiner for the College of Intensive Care Medicine. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives.

After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia’s Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne. He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education.

He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. He coordinates the Alfred ICU’s education and simulation programmes and runs the unit’s education website, INTENSIVE.  He created the ‘Critically Ill Airway’ course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. He is one of the founders of the FOAM movement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator of litfl.com, the RAGE podcast, the Resuscitology course, and the SMACC conference.

His one great achievement is being the father of three amazing children.

On Twitter, he is @precordialthump.

| INTENSIVE | RAGE | Resuscitology | SMACC

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